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|State and change of Biodiversity|
Vascular plants. About 11 400 species of aboriginal and endemic plants of 1488 genera and 197 families are presently registered in Russia. Approximate evaluation shows that endemic species constitute ~ 20 % of flora. The Red Book (1983) includes 440 Angiospermae, 11Gymnospermae and 10 fern species. No less than 2 000 - 3 000 species are actually threatened. About 75 % of vascular plants of Russian flora are represented in protected areas. Only few species are considered extinct as a result of human activities (IUCN category Ex-extinct). Out of 44 Angiospermae species included in the Red Book, 36 % are being endangered and are not protected. 1 103 of Vascular species are used in medicine (200 are officially approved), 350 - as foodstuffs ( fig.7.)
Bryophyta. Russian flora includes all 3 classes (1 370 species) of the moss-like: Anthocere, Hepatice, and Bryales (1 000 species). Up to 40 % of species have very small geographic ranges, 22 species are included in the Russian Red Data Book.
Algae. Over 9 000 algae species - about 1/4 of world algae flora are registered in Russia. Due to large ranges, the number of endemic species is not high and deviates from 2 - 3 % in inland basins to 6 - 10 % in sea ones. The highest degree of algae endemism is at the Baikal lake. No more than 1 % of rare, relict and endangered species are identified, first of all, because these pools of plants have not been thoroughly studied. More than 160 algae species are of economic value and have found wide application in food, medicinal and other areas.
Lichen. Russian lichen flora contains about 3 000 species of 167 genera and 45 families. They normally have broad geographic ranges and relatively low number of endemic forms - no more than 50 in Russia. But some of them are (e.g. the Chaenothecopsis incorporates 7 Russian endemic species). The Russian Federation Red Data Book includes 27 rare species. Lichen species are known to be environmental indicators.
Fungi. Myxomycetes is one of the less studied groups of fungi. In Russia it is registered 211 species from 5 orders and 10 families - about 30 % of world total. 75 - 80 % of myxomycetes species are expected to be revealed. A class of Oomycetes is represented by 350 water and land species in Russian flora. Ustilaginaceae - a key group of agricultural parasites comprises 323 species (on 600 host plant species) - about one third of their global diversity. Total number of Macromycetes species in Russia is still unknown. The Russian Red Book (1988) includes 17 endangered species. A list of 241 rare and 103 species in need of protection species was compiled at the Institute of Biology.
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