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|State and change of Biodiversity|
This problem is actual for Russia, especially for its anthropogenically transformed European part where successful hybridization between parental and domestically created species occurs resulting in fecund progeny (e.g. wolf-dog, wild boar-pig, forest-steppe cat-domestic cat hybrids). A threat of interspecies hybridization is also characteristic of the regions with anthropogenically transformed environment and disruptions of population control. Changes in habitat conditions can provoke interspecies hybridization, e.g. hybridization of Cervus elaphus and Cervus nippon in re-introduction sites of the latter in European Russia.
Biosafety problem still remains actual for artificial interspecies and even intergenera hybridization. In most cases such hybrids prove sterile or with only one sex surviving, e.g. an intergenera hybrid of Bison bonasus and cow, but when it concerns close species and when human control over the process is lacking, hybridization effects may unpredictable.
Voluntary and involuntary introductions. In Russia, re-introduction of species is viewed at as a mean for the conservation and restoration of biological diversity (fig.10). A lot of positive re-introduction outputs is known, for instance Ovibos moschatus population on the eastern coast of the Taimyr lake (Krasnoyarsk krai); Martes zibellina population in taiga; Bison bonasus European Russia and Caucasus; Castor fiber in European Russia; Marmota bobac in the Russian steppe. But wide-scale experiments on the animal and plant introduction in the 1930-50s caused considerable unpredictable negative effect or failure.
Invasions of species-introducents caused crisis's in Russian agriculture and forestry (Tab.2).
During the last 60 years invasive species were spreading: ondatra zibethica has assimilated in actually all regions of Russia - from tundra to arid zones, and Leptinotersa decemlineata has settled in agricultural landscapes of European Russia and south of West Siberia since the 60-s.
Table 2. Examples of plant and animal species invasive for the Russia
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