Although adverse impacts on biological diversity may have different
causes, in principle they are divided into natural ones (disasters, natural
development) and those of human origin. This strategy addresses the second
category including, inter alia, pollution (heavy metals, phenols, dioxins,
etc.), inappropriate management practices, global climate change, artificial
of alien species and uncontrolled release of genetically modified organisms.
Technical problems affecting biodiversity are ill-designed and improperly located constructions which constitute barriers to migrating animals (in-line constructions). They represent inconvenient elements within the environment and often are a cause of death (electric power cables). Land fragmentation is another threat to biodiversity. The gene pool of isolated populations tends to degrade and therefor increases the vulnerability of the ecosystem. It is indirectly linked with organized nests and sites plunder and the subsequent illegal trade.
Similar activities, interfering with both the criminal and moral codes, are difficult to control. In the past, over-use of biological resources was the only problem in regard to the intensity of management of an ecosystem. Recently, abandonment and disuse of land, particularly agricultural, have recently become more serious than ever. The problem is relevant especially to grasslands that have been developed as a result of traditional land-use practices but have been abandoned because of low economic effectiveness.
Invasive alien species have had dramatic negative impacts on species and entire ecosystems. The rate of invasions has increased due to permanent alterations of the landscape through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and transportation over long distances.
|identify threatening processes and assess their impact;|
|control pollution that has an adverse impact on biodiversity;|
|prevent the introduction of invasive species and control or eradicate
species which may threaten ecosystems or native species;
|prevent loss of biodiversity from land fragmentation and land abandonment;|
|strengthen control of the risk associated with the use and release of genetically modified organisms;|
|strengthen the application of appropriate mitigation measures;|
|harmonize all concepts, plans and strategies related to water management, transportation, mining and energy by taking into account the objectives of biodiversity conservation;|
|develop an effective strategy to control the trade in indigenous and protected species;|
|Animal trading (breeding of indigenous species in captivity and nest plundering) brings extraordinary high profits but can become a direct threat to the species, particularly to birds of prey, reptiles and insects.|
|The vast majority of invading plant species are weeds
that characteristically have rapid growth and early reproduction. Their
seeds are widely dispersed by wind or animals and they have the ability
to self fertilize or reproduce asexually Under natural conditions, ecosystems
have the ability to resist that normal frequencies of invasion but invasions
have become more frequent and many species and ecosystems are therefor
in danger One of the most dangerous invasive species in the mountain areas,
Heracleum mantegazzianum, is spreading along the rivers in Slovakia. Large
rivers in the lowlands are fighting the spread of Solidago canadensis,
Aster novi-belgii agg., Helianthus tuberosus agg. and Impatiens glandulifera.
Many invasive species are phytoalergens -Ambrosia artemisifolia, Ivo xantifolia,
Solidago canadensis, Acer negundo etc.
About 20% of the Slovak population Is sensitive to pollen. The black locust (Robinia pseudoacocia), Euroamerican hybrid poplars (Populus x euroamericana), and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) are frequent tree species that ore not native to Slovakia.
Their share In the species composition is 1,73%. 0.63%, and 0.3%, respectively. Of these species, Euroamerican
poplars have been considered a threat to the native block poplar due to their natural hybridization and thus deterioration of the gene pool.