State of the Biodiversity Report - Tajikistan - 2000

Response measures


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Strict Nature Reserves.

Tigrovaya balka. Established in 1938. Area - 49,7 thousands ha. The territory of nature reserve includes lower reaches of the Vakhsh river, with the foothills of Kazian and Buritau mountain ridges at the altitudes of 320 - 700 m above sea level. Prevailing landscape - flat delta terrace of the Vakhsh river, width up to 7 km. It includes more than 10 lakes and bogs, with predominance of tugai forests as well as desert and foothill ecosystems of Southern Tajikistan. Forested area is about 16.000 ha. Primary goal of protected area – study and conservation of the ecosystems presented here. The title of reservation - Tigrovaya balka - was kept as a reminder on the former rather big population of tigers here, last one is disappeared in summer of 1954. Some rare and endangered species of plants may be found here: Usmania campylopoda, Seidlitzia rozmarinus, Cousinia agelocephala, etc. Fauna of Tigrovaya balka nature reserve is very diverse. Up to 20 species of fishes, including 3 rare species, such as Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmannii, Aspiolucius esocinus and Barbus brachycephalus may be found here. The following mammals are typical for local ecosystems: Bukhara red deer Cervus elaphus bactrianus, goitred gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, wild boar Sus scrofa, jungle cat Felis chaus oxiana, striped hyena Hyaena hyaena, jackal Canis aureus, marbled polecat Vormela peregusna, several species of shrews Sorex, tolai hare Lepus tolai, Indian crested porcupine Hystrix leucura satunini, etc. Amphibians are presented by green toad Bufo viridis and march frog Rana ridibunda. More then 35 species of reptiles are inhabit here, including Turkestan plate-tailed gecko Teratoscincus scincus, toad-headed agama Phrynocephalus mystaceus, desert monitor Varanus griseus, rapid fringe-toed lizard Eremias velox, sand racerunner Eremias scripta, geckos Teratoscincus, water snake Natrix natrix, Central Asian cobra Naja oxiana, saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus. Unfortunately, numerous cases of poaching, fires, pressure factors, intensive agricultural activity and river pollution have resulted here in a severe degradation of natural complexes of reservation.

oopt.gif (18781 bytes)Dashtijum. Established in 1983. Area - 19,7 thousands ha. Reservation is arranged on the southern slopes of Khazratishoh mountain ridge. The territory of reservation is characterized by an original rocky relief with altitudes of 850 - 2400 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – preservation of original mid-mountain ecosystems of Central and Southeast Tajikistan. Forested area is about 3 thousands ha. Flora of reservation includes few rare and endangered species of plants - Fissidens karataviensis, Ostrowskia magnifica, Iris darwasica, Crocus Korolkovii, Juno Nickolai, Allium Rosenbachianum, Allium Suworovii, Eremurus Aitchisonii, Petilium Eduardii, etc. The largest population of the Capra falconeri is well preserved here. Also on the territory of reservation the following species has been registered: Himalayan rock agama Stelio himalayanus, geckos and snake-eyed skinks Ablepharus, water redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus, blue (Himalayan) whistling thrush Myiophoneus caeruleus, see-see partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis, snowcock Tetraogallus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, wolf Canis lupus, fox Vulpes vulpes, etc. It should be mentioned, that the number of mammals in reservation for the last few years reduced insignificantly - just for 8-10%. Till now, there is no data on the complete inventory of flora and fauna diversity on the reserve's territory.

Ramit. Established in 1959. Area - 16,1 thousands ha. Reservation is arranged on the southern slopes of Gissarsky ridge, within Ramit gorge. The territory of reservation is characterized by split rocky relief with altitudes of 1200 - 3200 m above sea level. Forested area is less 3 thousands ha. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of mid-mountain and high-mountain ecosystems of Central Tajikistan. Flora of reservation includes few rare and endangered species of plants - Thuja orientalis, Ostrowskia magnifica, Cousinia leptocampyla, Iris Hoogiana, etc. Fauna of reservation is presented by a large diversity of species, including green toad Bufo viridis, water snake Natrix natrix, Levantine viper Vipera lebetina, geckos and snake-eyed skinks Ablepharus, golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, griffon vulture Gypaetus fulvus, bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus, kestrel Falco tinnunculus, woodpecker Dendrocopos, cuckoo Cuculus canoris, stone marten Martes foina, lynx Felis lynx isabellina, snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, brown bear Ursus arctos isabelinus, wolf Canis lupus, fox Vulpes vulpes, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica, Bukhara red deer Cervus elaphus bactrianus, etc. However armed hostilities having a place in 1992-1996 years, directly on the territory of reservation, have rendered a very negative pressure on the condition of ecosystems, flora and fauna in reservation. After recovery of reservation in 1997 the preliminary registrations have shown a decrease of the number of Bukhara red deer from 150-200 animals in 1991 to 6-8 animals in 1997. Possibly, that the Bukhara red deer on the territory of reservation has completely vanished. It should be mentioned, that the forested area was reduced more 15%.

Habitat/species management areas. Nature refuges.

Zeravshansky. Established in 1976. Area - 2,38 thousands ha. Average elevation 890 – 980 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area –conservation of pheasant population (Phasianus colchicus zerafshanicus Tarn.) and its typical habitat – tugai ecosystem. At present, the total number of pheasants in reserve does not apparently exceed 70 birds. For the few last years, same experiments on the Bukhara red deer acclimatization were carried out here. Unfortunately, tugai ecosystems are still in danger here.

oopt3.gif (20495 bytes)Karatau. Established in 1972. Area - 14,4 thousands ha. Average elevation 700 - 1500 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of the piedmont low-herb tall and pistachio-almond light forests ecosystems. The goitred gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, and urical mouflon Ovis vignei bocharensis are subject to protection. Xerophytic light forest of Karatau is unique in republic, as the age of many pistachio trees here exceeds 600 years. However, ecosystems of reserve are still in danger caused by poaching, overgrazing and frequent illegal forest cuttings.

Nureksky. Established in 1984. Area - 30 thousands ha. Average elevation 1500 - 2900 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of ecosystems in a zone of creation of Nureksky artificial reservoir and analysis of their further evolution. On the territory of reserve such spices as snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, brown bear Ursus arctos isabelinus, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica, etc are protected. The number of animals here was recently reduced as a result of the disturbing factors and poaching.

Almasinsky. Established in 1983. Area - 6,0 thousands ha. Average elevation 1700 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – preservation of habitats of Ungernia Victoris – which is rare environmentally and economically significant plant included into the Red Data book of Tajikistan.

Aktashsky. Established in 1977. Area - 15,0 thousands ha. Average elevation 1800 - 3300 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area - preservation and restoration of the unique complex of juniper forests and arboreal-shrub and herb vegetation. Old abandoned drifts are also objects to protection as they serve as convenient sites for the mass wintering of bats. The following animals are presented here: Menzbier's marmot Marmota menzbieri, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, red kite Milvus milvus, kestrel, white-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus, Levantine viper Vipera lebetina, Central Asian tortoise Agrionemys horsfieldi, etc.

Dashtijum. Established in 1972. Area - 50,1 thousands ha. Primary goal of protected area - preservation of the Copra falconeri natural population. Other object to protection are unique light forests ecosystems and such species of animals as snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, brown bear Ursus arctos isabelinus, etc.

Iskanderkul. Established in 1969. Area - 30,0 thousands ha. Average elevation 2000 - 3500 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of mid-mountain and high-mountain ecosystems of Central Tajikistan. The following animals are presented here: loach, muddier, green toad, water snake, Himalayan rock agama, geckos, Central Asian viper, Levantine viper, wood pigeon, blue hill pigeon, rock pigeon, white-capped water redstart, Himalayan sparrow-hawk, kestrel, golden eagle, bearded vulture, black vulture as well as weasel, ermine, stone marten, lynx, snow leopard, wolf, fox, tolai hare, long-tailed marmot, Indian crested porcupine, Siberian ibex, Turkestan red pika, forest dormouse, etc.

Sayivatinsky. Established in 1972. Area - 4,1 thousands ha. Average elevation 1300 - 3300 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation and restoration of the unique complex of juniper forests.

Kusavlisay. Established in 1959. Area - 19,8 thousands ha. Mean altitude 2800 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation and restoration of the unique juniper forests. It is scheduled on the basis of Kusavlisay habitat to organize the "Juniper forest" national park, with an area of 60 thousands ha.

Sari-hisor. Established in 1959. The initial area - 40 thousands ha. Since 1979 the area has been extended to 196 thousands ha. Since the same time, in view of development of the South-Tajik territorial cattle-breeding complex the Sari-hisor protected area exists only conditionally. Average elevation 1400 - 4000 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of mid-mountain and high-mountain ecosystems, especially broad-leaved forests. It is scheduled on the basis of Sari-hisor habitat to organize the "Ursine forest" national park, with an area of 80 thousands ha. Unfortunately, at present time, wide cuttings of unique broad-leaved forests are clearly observed, all ecosystems are pressured by intensive antrophogenic factors.

Komarou. Established in 1970. Area - 9 thousands ha. Average elevation 1500 - 2600 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of mid-mountain ecosystems, including rare and endangered species of animals such as snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, brown bear Ursus arctos isabelinus, etc.

Childuhtaron. Established in 1970. Area - 14,6 thousands ha. Average elevation 1200-2600 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of mid-mountain ecosystems and landscape-geologic monument Childuhtaron. Few rare and endangered species as snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, brown bear Ursus arctos isabelinus, lynx Felis lynx isabellina are also protected here.

Sangvorsky. Established in 1970. Area - 50,9 thousands ha. Average elevation 2300 - 4500 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – integrated conservation of all presented here ecosystems (10 types of mid-mountain and high-mountain ecosystems of Central Tajikistan and Pamirs). Many rare and endangered species as peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, brown bear Ursus arctos isabelinus and especially endemic Sorex buchariensis (Insectivora) are also protected here.

Zorkul. Established in 1972. Area - 16,5 thousands ha. Average elevation 4100 – 4200 m above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – conservation of habitats of rare and endangered species of birds: bar-headed goose Anser indicus, brown-headed gull Larus brunnicephalus, Himalayan snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis, Tibetan snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus, etc. Besides, some rare and endangered mammals species are protected here: Marco Polo's sheep Ovis ammon polii, snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, etc.

Muzkol. Established in 1972. Area - 66,9 thousands ha. Average elevation 3300 - 5700 meters above sea level. Primary goal of protected area – integrated conservation of Pamirs high-mountain ecosystems, including the rare and endangered species: Marco Polo's sheep Ovis ammon polii, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica, snow leopard Panthera uncia uncia, Himalayan snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis, Tibetan snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus, Himalayan griffon Gyps himalayensis, bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus hemachalanus, brown-headed gull Larus brunnicephalus and others.

index.gif (80120 bytes)It is well-known, that the natural reserves are one of the most effective ways of nature conservation, especially biological resources. During the last 40 years, in Tajikistan, well developed national network of protected areas has been established. This network covers virtually all natural-landscape complexes of the country. Total protected area is about 14,3% of the country territory. However, at present, almost all natural reserves are not effective, moreover they do not operate actually. The negative anthropogenic effect on the biological diversity in Tajikistan steadily increases and the degradation of many natural-landscape complexes is expanding. Apparently, it is necessary to undertake the whole complex of high-effective measures restore an existing protected areas network and establish new ones, which projects are already designed.


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