ERMC/AUA.: State of the Environment Armenia
Armenian culture in beginning of development of Armenians as a folk had a strong influence of Shoumer and Accadian cultures. Probably this influenced on development of fine arts, cuneiform, even language of first Armenians. It had a great influence of Assyrian and Babylonian cultures. We know, that people that time could build beautiful towns, they mastered many crafts, including processing of metal (iron, bronze). Urartian people had a very large pantheon and myths, but none of them is known now. Armenian pantheon was alike Hellenistic.
From material culture of that time are known a pagan church in Garni (1st century before our era), were found many golden coins, monuments, etc.
During the epoch of Tigran II the Great Hellenistic culture spreads in Armenia. It influenced on architecture, literature, music, theater. Though theater was not a new thing for Armenians: they had a primitive folk theater, but Hellenistic culture brought tragedies and comedies of Greek authors, and Greek actors showed them to Armenian kings and noblemen. Armenians also began to write dramas to be shown in theater. Were created not only dramatic, but also historical and philosophical works. All the literature of that period was on Greek language. Many Armenian princes were educated in Greece. Was increasing the influence of Roman culture on the culture of Armenia.
Armenian Christian culture brought with her new music, literature, architecture. Theater was forbidden. Literature began to develop Christian way: the main themes were the problems of God and a human being. Were built beautiful churches, and some of them are stood till our days. Appeared a need in a native alphabet, and it was created in 405 by Mesrop Mashtots. Began the development of historiography; were created such works as "History of Armenia till Our Days" (middle of 5th century). Generally it is possible to say that the 5th century became the "Golden century" for Armenian Christian culture. As an event of Armenian Christian culture we can consider khachkars- cross- stones (big stones with crosses on them, made very accurately). Khachkars are found only in Armenia and nowhere else.
Developed also science, especially medicine, mathematics and astronomy. In the sphere of medicine were created works, that were used even by Ibn- Sina, the great Arab scientist, and these knowledge are used till present in folk medicine. Mathematics, especially geometry, was developed in works of Anania Shirakatsi (6th century). In the mountains of Armenia was created an observatory, which is stood till now and is alike Stonehange in Britain.
In the sphere of education there were significant changes from the pagan epoch: if before education was only for princes and nobleman, in Christian period the principle of education was "Free education for all".
Arab and Turk occupations partly destroyed the culture of Armenia. After 10th century significantly developed architecture: appeared new styles, were built many churches, monuments, etc. Developed also literature: was created heroic poem "Sasuntsi David", which tells about fight of Armenian people against Arabs.
In 18th- 19th centuries appears the realistic movement in literature: were created such works, as "The Problem of Bread", some political works, and even comedies, telling about real life of ordinary or reach people. Beginning of 20th century brought lyrics to literature. Began the development of Armenian culture, especially literature in foreign countries (William Saroyan, Tekeian, etc).
After independence and sovetization of Armenia in 1920 began development of arts and especially science. Highly increased the level of education. Children could have free education at schools. By percentage of people having higher education Armenia was on the first place in Soviet Union. Developed also literature, theater, fine arts.
After Armenia become a democratic state in 1990, it became possible to use the foreign scientific potential, which gives Armenia an opportunity to increase own science, culture and education.
Economy. - History. - Culture - Population. - Geography. - Mineral Resources. - Climate.