Major Regional Problems
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Taking into account the great number of problems and their similarity in different regions, it would be expedient to estimate their state and characterize the most vulnerable territories.

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Water Resources

The Republic has limited water resources. The estimates show that the total transit and flow of Azerbaijanís rivers on average (50% of provision) constitute 29.7 billion m3 a year, and in case of moderate and extremely arid years (75% and 95% of provision) they decrease to 25.5 and 20.7 billion m3 respectively. Only 30% of river flow resources are formed within the republic itself, and depending on the year, are estimated to be within 9.2; 7.3; 5.4 billion m3.

According to the amount of national water resources, estimated per capita and per unit of the area, Azerbaijan is in last place among neighboring countries.

Estimations show that according to the amount of water resources per 1 km3 of the area and per capita, the worst situation is in the Mugan  Salyan zone (3 and 7), Apsheron Peninsula (15 and 0.04), Araks lowland (19 and 0.04), Mill  Karabakh region (39 and 0.5), Kazakh region (74 and 1.3) and Nakhchivan (17 and 1.6).

A general shortage of water for agriculture in an average year constitutes 3.7 m3, with 4.75 m3 in arid years.

The irrigation system is comprised of 10 main canals and 2 water escape collectors. In the Republic, 4.1% of all permanently active canals (38.9 thousand km in length) have artificial coatings, and 95.9% have ground canal beds, that results in the loss of 2.5  3.0 billion m3 of water. This causes the rise of ground water level, as well as secondary salinization and swamping associated with it.

The annual intake of fresh water from the water reservoirs of the Republic is approximately 16 billion m3, with 1.1  1.2 billion m3 being from underground layers. The actual consumption of water makes up 11  13 billion m3, of which 25  30% is used for industrial and domestic purposes. Discharges to water objects make up 4.5  5 billion m3, including conventionally pure  3.5  4.5; nominally treated  0.25  0.32; polluted  0.25  0.30 billion m3. The ecological state of the water facilities of the Republic is presented in diagrams.

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