The state of the atmosphere in the Republic remains to be threatened by high levels of pollution. Annual discharges depending on the utilized capacity of production constitute from 1.2 to 2.6 million tons of hazardous substances. Thus in 1991 according to the data of the State Committee on Statistics, the total amount of hazardous air discharges constituted 2.6 million tons, including 112 thousand tons of solid dust, 93 thousand tons of sulphur dioxide, 638 thousand tons of carbon oxide, 82 thousand tons of nitrogen oxide, 1665 thousand tons of carbons, 37 thousand tons of volatile organic substances (VOS). According to the amount and density of air discharges Baku and Sumgait are in first place. Their air basin is poisoned by oil refineries, oil chemistry, energy, metallurgy, construction enterprises. A big portion of air contamination is due to motor transport.
Ganja, Mingachevir, Alibayramli, Sumgait and Baku cities have a high contamination level, not only of air, but of the environment as a whole. A great part of contaminants discharged into the atmosphere come from Baku (66.1%) and Sumgait (4.S%), less in Ganja (3%<), Mingachevir (2.5%) and Alibayramly (5%).
The density of hazardous discharges for the period of 1990 1991 constituted in average per unit of area 400 tons km2 in Baku; 1200 in Sumgait; S50 in Ganja; 1000 in Alibayraumly; 4H() in Mingachevir; and in average throughout Azerbaijan 24 tons km2, which was 1() times more than the former average level in the Soviet Union.
Beginning from 1993 due to the collapse of the former Soviet Union and disruption of economic relations the majority of enterprises operate at an average of 3S % of their project capacity, and the amount of discharges decreased. However, the number of hazardous ingredients remained at the same level (60 70 different ingredients for Baku and Sumgait).
The main reasons for the contamination of the air basin of these cities are: the wear and tear of equipment and out dated technology, which have not been renewed for the last 40 SO years, a rapid decrease in the use of natural gas as a fuel on the thermal power stations, thermal centers and the use of highly sulfurous mazut, regular non fulfillment of planned and necessary protecting measures and lack of sufficient investment for environmental protection. Thus, the data analysis from 1980 1991 shows that 0.5 0.6% of investments into industrial development were allocated for environmental protection, but that is not enough to compensate for the negative impact. From 1993 to 1995 the means for the reconstruction and renovation of treatment facilities have not been allocated.
Considerable discharges are also produced by motor transport. The total amount of contaminants discharged from motor transport for the period of 1989 1995 are given below (in thousand tons per year).
A rapid increase in air discharge in 1989 is associated with the fact that, since that year the actual air discharge of associated gas has been taken into account in statistical records, especially in 1993 1994.
The concentration of hazardous substances in the air of big cities remains rather high.
|[Home] [EcologicalZones] [Major Regional Problems]|