The zone of the Greater Caucasus slopes is situated in the northern part of the Republic. The zone is a mountainous area, edged from the east and south with the belt of foothills. The height varies from 25 to 4480m. The zone includes 5 natural geographic regions: Samur Divichi, Gonag Kend, Zakatali Lagich, Alazan Agrichay, Shemakha and the mountainous area of the Gobustan Apsheron regions (Guba Khachmas, Shemakha Gobustan, Sheki Zakatali and Ajenaur Jeyranchel natural economic regions).
The Samur Divichi region consists of the low lying plain area stretching from the Samur River mouth to the Bogaz lowland inclusively. From the Caspian to the north and north east the relief gradually rises. The surface is formed by alluvial, alluvial prolluvial and alluvial marine upper quaternary sediments. The rivers coming out from the foothills form a range of cones, which create unevenness (protuberant central axial rising and intercone lowerings) and sharply broadening, flow together in an eastern direction. A reductinn in the number of rivers and their branches sharply decreases the linear breakdown of the relief from the north to the south. In the foothill
part of the Shollarplain there are many springs, which feed the Shollar water supply system of Baku.
The Samur Divichi lowland is charac terized by the moderate warm climate of the steppes and semi deserts. The average temperature of the coldest months depen ding on the height of the relief fluctuates from 3oC to +18oC, and in the warmest months exceeds 22oC. The annual precipitation constitutes 300 mm/year in the south, and 400 mm/year in the north. The number of snowy days per year makes up 10 20. In April and September the number of days with hot dry winds reaches up to 30 days, which influences Due to their frequency and destruction force they take one of the leading places in the Caucasus. The number of days with snow cover is more than 160 in the high mountainous areas, and about 40 in the low mountainous areas. Dominating winds are: northern, north eastern and north western. The topsoil is mainly represented by mountainous timber brown, mountainous timber brown typical as well as mountainoui meadow turf soils. The whole region is covered with forests and moun
tainous meadows with rich flora and fauna. On the territory with mountain meadow landscape gar dening, cattle breeding is developed, and within the territories with mountainous meadow land scape, summer cattle breeding is developed. Prior to the economic crisis of the 1990’s, light and food industries had rather rapid growth in this region.
The Alasan Agrichay region is situated at the foot of the southern slopes of the Major Caucasus Ridge and Ajinaur Jeyranchel low mountainous area. In the west the region borders with Georgia, in the east it is limited by the Girdimanchay river. The relief altitude is 200 600 m. The climate is moderate warrn with a dry winter. The average annual temperature is 12oC, its absolute maximum during a year is 16oC and absolute minimum 35oC. The average annual amount of precipitation is 600 900mm and snow remains for 20 to 40 days. The northern part of the region is represented hy alluvial meadow timber soils without carbonate, and the southern part by alluvial meadow timber carbonate soils. Within forest landscapes alder and Pterocarya, partially oak, Ulmus campes tris, hornbeam, and others prevail. The Alasan Agrichay region is one of the main agricultural zones ot’ the Republic. The main hranches are tobacco growing, fruit growing (nut growing), silk worm breeding, cattle breeding, grain growing and vine growing. Farming is mainly irrigated.
The Shemakha region occupies the mountainous Shirvan, east of the Girdimanchay river and west of Gobustan. The region borders with the Major Caucasus Ridge in t.he north and the area of mud volcanoes ”Akhtarma Pashalli” and the Gijaki mountains in the south. In the northern part of the region the relief has an altitude up Lo 2200m (Buhrar mountain), in the south it decreases down to 500m of absolute height. The climate of the region is of several types: moderate warm, semi desert and dry steppes climate with a dry summer; moderate warm with a dry winter; cold with a humid winter. The annual average air temperature varies from 14oC in the south to 2oC in the north. The absolute minimum is 18’ and 26’C respectively and the absolute maximum is +40oC and +30oC respectively. The precipitation amount during the year rapidly increases from the south (300 mm) to the north (900 rnm). Western winds are dominant here with an annual average velocity up to 15 m/s. Within the mountainous Shirvan (from the south to the north) the dominating soils are chestnut and light chestnut, mountainous chestnut, mountainous grey brown, mountainous low power chernozems, carbonate and mountainous middle chernozem soils with dry steppe, steppe, mountainous meadow and mountainous timber vegetation. Vine growing, cattle breeding, grape growing, fruit and tobacco growing are widely developed in the region.
The ecological zone of the Greater Caucasus Ridge is characterized by a maximum reproductive indices: in oxygen production more than 30 million tons/year, with the average index in the physical geographic regions from 5.6 in the mountainous Shirvan to 13 in the Zakatali Lagich regions; reproductive capacity on surface waters more than 3 billion m3. The whole foothill area of the Greater Caucasus is an area of low electric power consumption, which implies a low density of industrial enterprises in the zonc. The main industrial enterprises are concentratcd on the periphery of the ecological zone, Kuba Khachmas and Sheki Zakatali regions and are mostly r
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