State of the Environment Bulgaria 2003
What is being done to solve the problems
Years ago the efforts regarding our forests were directed towards increasing productivity. Since 10 years ago there was a change toward increasing sustainability, and for the future the effort shall be directed towards increasing the adaptability of the forest ecosystems to climate change. The main measures that are undertaken in the oak forests are: regeneration by using short term gradual cutting, and reclamation of low-stemmed and middle-stemmed forests.
Control and Investment Activity
In 2001 the Regional Inspectorates for Environment and Water and the National Park Directorates have overseen the sites and activities within the protected territories as well as within forests and sites outside these territories and also within fishery farms, zoo parks, zoo shops, laboratories for taxidermy herbs warehouses, collection centres for snails, etc. A total of 1404 checks have been made, 940 recommendations have been issued and 703 of them are already implemented. The number of the penalty certificates issued was 168.
Serious and complex checks aiming at overcoming the weaknesses of the organization of the national parks were performed by the directorates of the three national parks.
In 2001 the National Environmental Protection Fund has spent approximately 826 thousand leva for activities related to biological diversification. The majority of this amount – 808 thousand leva – was spent for activities performed within the national parks, while 18 thousand leva were spent as grants for investment projects.
*To secure the forests from fires a number of preventive anti-fire measures are being undertaken. Every year an average of 200 km of anti-fire glades and mineralised frontages are built for implementation of projects for limiting the fires. Dry grass and waste are removed from fire–sensitive sites near railway stations, roads, recreation areas, and agricultural land. Every forest administration has developed operational plans for preventive fire safety activities and fire-fighting.
Land–improvement forests and territories have been created for the fight against the erosion, for improvement of the micro conditions within agricultural lands, for protection of the engineering facilities, and to reduce the negative impact caused by the industrial centres, the highways and the railway roads. Up to this moment a total of 36 040 ha. of land-improvement forests have been defined.
The protection of the genetic fund of the forest trees is performed by establishment of seed basis, plantations, dendrarium and botanic gardens which in total add up to 44 622 ha.
In accordance with the General Guidelines included in the Resolution of the Helsinki Ministerial Conference, the 10th World Congress of the Foresters and the International Conference in Rio De Janeiro, the activities related to the forests in the Republic of Bulgaria are and will be directed towards development and permanent management of the forest ecosystems, preservation and enrichment of their biological diversification.
Forest management is based on the policy and the legislation related to management of forest resources for a continued period of time, aiming at development, protection and maintenance of the forest ecosystems.
In forests with special status or high economic value within Bulgaria high–stemmed trees are cultivated. The type, methods and the way of cutting as well as their intensity and frequency are coordinated with the trees’ age and biological requirements, as well as the nature, economic and social conditions.
Preventive cutting is taking place in plantations with worsening sanitary conditions, despite the age of the plants and the type of the economy.
Every cutting is preceded by active work by foresters who mark the trees envisaged for cutting. While managing a forest, marking is the main activity that can monitor problems and remaining trees, regulate the tree content and origin. It also aims at protecting and developing the primary and secondary types of trees with genetic, technical and aesthetic properties.
Water protective forests and territories have been created for the protection of drinking water sources, regulation of the water stream and maximum accumulation of water quantities from the forests.
A system of protective forests was created in order to master the erosion, avalanches, landslides, floods, destabilization of the coastal frontage of the large rivers, Black Sea and the Danube Islands, as well as to increase of the upper limit of the forest in the high mountains.
The water protective forests in the country amount to 513 878 ha.
* Source: Forest Technical University - Sofia
Last update on March 2003