Within the energy sector the following organizations are major contributors to the pollution of water bodies: the
Departments of "Saknakhshiri" (coal mining) and "Sakenergo" (energy production) and
"Saknavtobprodukti" (Georgia Oil Company) and its extraction and processing facilities. Although in
recent years production volumes have fallen significantly, environmental impact of these falicities remains
substantial due to outdated technology and lack of proper maintenance of treatment facilities.
In 1992 "Saknakhshiri" (coal mining and enrichment, Tkibuli and Tkvarcheli) released more then 12.8 mill. cub. m of insufficiently treated effluents into the surface waters. In 1994 due to drop in the production levels, the “Saknakhshiri” released 1.3 mill. cub. m into rivers.
The Department of "Sakenergo" abstracted more than 765 mill cub. m surface water in 1992. A major issue for the Department is the rational use of water resources, thermal pollution of the river Mtkvari and problems with dissolved oxygen in discharged water. All these factors affect the ecology of the river seriously.
The Gardabani Power Plant has decreased its activities substantially. However, there are plans to reconstruct some of its facilities. If this will not be designed properly (installation of closed water circulation systems), the Plant might become the largest polluter of the Mtkvari river.
The Batumi Oil Refinery processed with great difficulties 320 thousand tones of oil in 1993 because of aged technological facilities. In 1992, 8 mill. cub. m water was discharged into Kubistskali river, together with 332 tonnes of suspended particles and 59 tonnes of oil. The refinery is the major source of oil pollution on the entire Black Sea coast of Georgia. At the same time exact pollution figures are not available.
Basic reconstruction of the Refinery is estimated to cost more than 200 mill. USD. These estimates significantly exceed the possibilities of the country, leaving external assistance as the only way for financing cleaner production.
There is no information available regarding the import of oil products via railway, sea and pipelines or
the pollution of surface and ground waters from these shipments.