:saqarTvelos garemos mdgomareoba, 96 - qveynis Sesaxeb

istoria


saqarTvelos teritoria uZvelesi droidan dasaxlebuli iyo qarTvelTa winapari tomebiT. aq maT Seqmnes sakuTari samiwaTmoqmedo maRali kultura, xorblisa da vazis mravalricxovani endemuri jiSebiT, ganviTarebuli mecxoveleobiTa da a.S.

Zv. w. XII-VIII s.s. istoriuli saqarTvelos samxreT-dasavleTSi (dRevandeli TurqeTis SemadgenlobaSi, tao), arsebobda diaoxis saxelmwifo, Savi zRvis samxreT- aRmosavleT sanapiroze (Zv.w. XI-VIII s.s.) kolxas samefo. Zv. w. VI s-dan Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze (afsarosidan md. fsoumde) arsebobda kolxeTis samefo, (ucxouri wyaroebiT iberia) Zv.w. IV s. bolosa da III s-is dasawyisSi Camoyalibda aRmosavlur qarTuli saxelmwifo - qarTlis samefo. dedaqalaqi iyo mcxeTa, pirveli mefe - farnavazi.

saqarTvelos geografiuli mdebareoba xels uwyobda kontaqtebs sxvadasxva qveynebTan da amasTanave mas aRmosavleTis yvela did dampyrobTa interesebis sferoSi aqcevda. uZvelesi droidan moyolebuli irani, romi, bizantia, arabTa saxalifo, Turq-selCukebi, monRolebi, osmalebi, ruseTi, cdilobda aq Tavisi poziciebis gamtkicebas, rac did zians ayenebda qveyanas, xels uSlida mis erTianobas, gamudmebuli saomari operaciebis asparezad aqcevda mas, xels uwyobda Sida separatiuli Zalebis aqtiurobas.

warmarTulma xanam dagvitova sasaxleTa, cixe-simagreTa da qalaqTa naSTebi (ufliscixe, armazi, urbnisi, vani da sxv.), oqromWedlobis, keramikuli warmoebis, mozaikuri mxatvrobisa da xelovnebis sxva dargTa SesaniSnavi nimuSebi.

ax.w. pirveli saukuneebidanve, saqarTveloSi vrceldeba qristianuli moZRvreba. IV s. 30-ian wlebSi mefe mirianis dros, mociqulTa sworis wminda nino kapadokielis qadagebiT, qristianoba saxelmwifo religiad cxaddeba.

saqarTvelos istorias uZvelesi droidan erT saxelmwifod gaerTianebis tendencia axasiaTebs. qarTuli qveynebi erTiandebodnen, Semdeg iSlebodnen, dampyrobni inawilebdnen. farnavazis droindeli saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg mniSvnelovania V s. II naxevari - vaxtang gorgaslis mefobis xana, rodesac iranelTa batonobis winaaRmdeg brZolisas, qarTulma eklesiam avtokefalia moipova, aigo sveticxovlis qvis eklesia (pirveli eklesia sveticxovlisa mirianis mefobaSi aigo), cixe-qalaqi ujarma, artanuji, Weremi, safuZveli daedo Tbilisis gadedaqalaqebas da a.S.

arabTa batonobis pirobebSi (VII-IX s.s.), daqsaqsul qveyanaSi, gareSe Zalis winaaRmdeg brZolis viTarebaSi iqmneba damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifoebi: das. saqarTveloSi afxazTa samefo (dedaqalaqi quTaisi), aRm. saqarTveloSi - kaxeTis (dedaqalaqi TianeTi), hereTis (dedaqalaqi Saqi), samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi - qarTvelTa (tao-klarjeTi, dedaqalaqi artanuji) samefoebi, bagrationTa dinastiiT saTaveSi. im dros, rodesac saqarTvelos Suaguli - qarTli arabebs epyraT da TbilisSi maTi amira ijda, es saxelmwifoebi erT samefod gasaerTianrblad ibrZodnen.

aseT rTul pirobebSi did aRmavlobas ganicdida qarTuli kultura. mezobel qveynebTan mWidro kulturul urTierTobaTa pirobebSi aigo bolnisis (V s.), mcxeTis jvris (VI s.), oSkis, xaxulis, banas da sxva didebuli taZrebi. iTargmna ZiriTadi saRvTismetyvelo literatura, Seiqmna qarTuli mwerlobis agiografiuli Txzulebebi.

X s. 70-ian wlebSi, bagrat bagrationis gamefebiTa (975-1014 w.w.) da qarTvelTa samefoebis gaerTianebiT, Seiqmna saxelmwifo saqarTvelo, romlis irgvliv SemdgomSi xdeboda qarTuli qveynebis Semokreba da erTiani qarTuli feodaluri monarqiis Camoyalibeba, romelmac erTiani saxelmwifos saxiT XV s. bolomde iarseba. marTalia, am saukuneebSi mas mouxda Turq-selCukebTan didi brZolebis (XI s. 70-iani wlebi - 1122) da monRolTa 100 wliani batonobis gadatana (XIII s. 30-iani - XIV s. 30-iani wlebi), magram qveyana mainc aRmavali ganviTarebis gziT midioda. XII saukuneSi saqarTvelo maxlobeli aRmosavleTis uZlieresi qristianuli saxelmwifo iyo, romlis sazRvrebi gadaWimuli iyo nikofsiidan (axl. tuafse) darubandamde da oseTidan (axl. Crd. oseTi) aregawamde (somxeTi).

gansakuTrebul siZlieres saqarTvelom miaRwia mefeebis daviT IV aRmaSeneblisa (1089-1125 w.w.) da Tamar didis (1184-1213 w.w.) dros. es iyo saqarTvelos politikuri siZlieris, ekonomikuri da kulturuli aRmavlobis xana. daiwera saqarTvelos erTiani istoria (“qarTlis cxovreba”), mravali filosofiuri Txzuleba, Seiqmna sakanonmdeblo Zeglebi, saero-mxatvruli nawarmoebebi, aigo sveticxovlis, alaverdis, bagratis, banas didebuli taZrebi, gelaTisa da varZiis kompleqsi da sxv. eklesia-monastrebi aseve kulturisa da ganaTlebis centrebs warmoadgendnen, sadac mimdinareobda momaval TaobaTa aRzrda, saRvTismetyvelo-filosofiuri literaturis Targmna, iwereboda originaluri Txzulebebi. Suasaukunovani qarTuli kulturis gvirgvini genialuri SoTa rusTavelis “vefxistyaosania”, romelmac samarTlianad daimkvidra adgili msoflio literaturis genialur qmnilebaTa Soris. imdroindel qarTul kulturas axasiaTebs mravali ram (humanizmi, megobroba, raindoba da sxv.), rac Semdeg evropul renesanss daedo safuZvlad.

XVI s-dan daqucmacebul-daSlili, mahmadianur garemocvaSi myofi saqarTvelo ibrZoda arsebobis da rwmenis SenarCunebisaTvis.

mas Semdeg, rac maxlobeli aRmosavleTis politikur sarbielze qristianuli ruseTi gamodis, qarTvelTa gadarCenis imedebi erTmorwmune ruseTs ukavSirdeba. XVIII s. II naxevridan qarTl-kaxeTi mefe erekle II (1745-1798 w.w.) da imereTis mefe solomon I (1754-1784 w.w.), iranisa da TurqeTis agresiis winaaRmdeg brZolis saTaveSi idgnen. 1783 w. qarTl-kaxeTis samefo “georgievskis traqtatiT” ruseTis mfarvelobaSi Sevida. 1801 wels ruseTma daarRvia “traqtatiT” nakisri valdebuleba da moaxdina aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aneqsia; gaauqma mefoba, 1803 w. gaauqma imereTis samefo, SemdgomSi dasavleT saqarTvelos samTavroebi da saqarTvelo ruseTis imperiaSi Semaval or - Tbilisisa da quTaisis guberniad iqca.

1864 wels, saqarTveloSi gauqmda batonymoba, ramac xeli Seuwyo kapitalizmis ganviTarebas. aseT mZime pirobebSi ar Sewyvetila kulturuli moRvaweoba. iwereboda mxatvruli nawarmoebebi, istoriuli Txzulebebi, samecniero gamokvlevebi, arsdeboda qarTuli skolebi, stambebi, sadac ibeWdeboda qarTuli wignebi, viTardeboda xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargebi. mowinave qarTuli inteligencia ibrZoda erovnuli enisa da kulturis dasacavad.

1917 wlis revoluciis Semdeg, amierkavkasia gamoeyo ruseTis imperias. 1918 wlis 26 maiss gamocxadda saqarTvelos damoukidebloba. 1920 wels saqarTvelos respublikasa da sabWoTa ruseTs Soris daido xelSekruleba Tavdausxmelobis Sesaxeb. 1921 wlis 25 Tebervals, ruseTma daarRvia xelSekruleba da daipyro saqarTvelo.

1991 wlis sabWoTa putCisa da ssrk-is daSlis Semdeg, saqarTvelom kvlav moipova damoukidebloba (oficialurad gamocxadda 1991 wlis 26 maiss).


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