AIR POLLUTION LEVEL
The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers, despite the reduction of production, remains rather high. The most high level of air pollution is registered in Leninogorsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. One of the problems in Balkhash is air pollution by disulphide. After long period of idleness Balkhash copper smelter has started its operation. However, copper is produced without purification and utilization of disulphide. The main polluting substances are the following: dust, sulphur and nitrogen dioxides, hydrocarbons emitted by the enterprises of heat power system and metallurgy. The enterprises of the Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution.
About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors – emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields, and other physical factors.
Last years the role of automobile transport in air pollution with lead, benzaperen and formaldehyde has increased. Automobile transport emits dozens of polluting substances together with exhausted gas, the total volume of which is more than 2 million tons. In most of the large cities the contribution of automobile transport to the air basin pollution has reached in the recent years more than 60%, and in the city of Almaty - 90 % of the total emissions.
As a result in the residential zone of the cities various chemical combinations of the 1st-2nd danger classes are registered, to say nothing of the combinations of the 3rd-4th danger classes (nitrogen, sulphur, carbon oxides, and others). Thus on the average in the cities the concentration of benzaperen – a substance of the 1st danger class exceeds the Maximum Admissible Concentration 2.5 times, and in the city of Almaty - 307 times, and sometimes up to 33 MAC, in Taraz - 16 MAC, in Ust-Kamenogorsk - 11 MAC. A content of specific combinations is high. Thus in the city of Shymkent there are high maximum one-time concentrations of phosphorus anhydrate, fluoric hydrogen, copper, lead, and cadmium. In the cities of Ekibastuz and Pavlodar there is benzaperen, zinc, chrome, lead, rubidium, nickel, manganese, iron, chlorine, and mercury. In 1996 the content of lead exceeded a sanitary standard in Zhezkazgan (1.3 MAC), Leninogorsk (1.1 MAC), Shymkent (1.5 MAC), Ust-Kamenogorsk (1.7 MAC) that is lower in comparison with 1995. In 1995 in Zhezkazgan there was 2.3 MAC, in Leninogorsk 3.3 MAC, Ust-Kamenogorsk 2.3 MAC, Shymkent 2.4 MAC.
A chronically unfavorable impact with regard to small concentrations of the air pollutants on the human health results in damaging separate organs and systems, and reduction of the total resistance. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases.