UNMIK

PROVISIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF SELF-GOVERNMENT INSTITUCIONET E PĖRKOHSHMVE VETQEVERISĖSE PRIVREMENE INSTITUCIJE SAMOUPRAVLJANJA
Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning Ministria e Ambientit dhe Planifikimit Hapėsinor Ministarstvo Sredine i Prostornog Planiranja

        

5.

Agriculture

 

 

5.1.

Overview
   

The total surface of Kosovo is 10.877 km square with 2 major plain areas: Kosovo plain and the Dukagjin plain .The climate is characterizes as continental with some Mediterranean influence in the lower areas

Of the total area, 53% (585.000 ha) is agricultural land , 41% (455.000 ha) is forest and forestry land whereas  6 % for the others .(MAFRD resource ,water and drainage sector)

Around 51% of the farmland is used for grains (corn, wheat, barley), 45% for pastures and meadows, 3% for vineyard and groves and the rest 1 %.

   
Figure 9: Land Distribution in Kosovo Figure 10: Distribution of Agricultural Land

Source: Ministry of Forestry, Agriculture and Rural Development

   

88% of the farmland is privately owned while the rest is on the property of Socially owned companies. The arable land is considered of good quality and the temperate climate make agriculture a possibly strong economically sector that should at some point be able to assure adequate food supply for the population and even enable the export of some food stuff.

Agriculture contributes to 30 % of the GDP of Kosovo while its supports 60% of the population. Along with the forestry sector it contributes 35 % of GDP

   

5.2.

State of the Agriculture
   

4 major challenges are currently being faced by the agricultural sector in Kosovo:

·    Loss of farm land: each year some 1000 ha are being de facto transformed into built area (some estimation, puts this number much higher)

·    Parcel fragmentation; the amount of land available by farming Household is low (0.5 –2 ha on average)

·    Industrial pollution; agricultural land are under a constant threat from polluters large and small -mainly through soil and water pollution

·    Landfills: a number of controlled and uncontrolled land fills in Kosovo are situated in around near farming areas

 source :Statistics of Agriculture in Kosovo 2001(FAO resource, 2000)

   

5.3.

Agriculture and Irrigation
   

Previous to the 1999 conflict, 70,000 ha of land was under irrigation some of which by traditional means other by a sprinkler system. This number had dropped to 23,000 ha in 1999 the due to the devastation of war and the lack of maintenance. An estimated 45 million € would be needed to rehabilitated the system.

Thanks to donor contribution some 51,000 ha were under irrigation in 2002

 

11: Trend in Irrigation

 

Source: Ministry of Forestry, Agriculture and Rural Development

 

5.2.

Pesticides and Fertilizers
   

It does seem that a comprehensive study of the effect of pesticide and fertilizer has been made in Kosovo. Nonetheless the use of fertilizers in Kosovo is limited as compared to other European states. This is due to by the high price of fertilizers and the lack of government subsidies. In 2001, 80.400 tones chemical fertilizers (around 2 mil.€  worth) and 712.258 tones organically fertilizers ( 1.5 mil.€ worth) were used (Source: MAFRD –Monitoring sector ,Fertilize and pesticide use  2001)

It is estimated that the annually use of pesticide in Kosovo is around 461 tones of different pesticides such are: insecticides (306 t)., fungicide (106 t), herbicide (3 t), rodenticide (42 t), Akaricide (4 t). Expressed in monetary the value is around 2.25 mil. €

   

5.3.

Food Production
   
 

Figure 12: Some Main Agricultural Output 1980-2001

Kosovo is not self sufficient in food production and relies on import. However the absence of systematic controls at the border raises issue of the quality of the imported food stuff.

 

  Source: Annual statistics for relative years e & Questionnaires of economical housing  2001