ROMANIA - General Information
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Official name: ROMANIA

Geographic location: South-East of Central Europe, North of the Balkan Peninsula, in the Lower Danube basin, bordering on the Black Sea.

Boundaries:
- East: Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova and the Black Sea;
- South: Bulgaria;
- South and South-West: Yugoslavia;
- West: Hungary;
- North: Ukraine.

Romania

Area:238,391 sq.km (12th largest in Europe).

Border Length: 3,190.3 km

Geological Age: The same as the European Continent, roughly 550 million years.

Physical features: Mountains (31%), hills and plateaus (33%), plains (36%).

Hydrography: The river Danube in the south of the country, length 1,075 km (out of the total 2,850 km from its source to its flowing into the sea).
Other Rivers: Mures, Olt, Prut, Siret, Ialomita, Somes, Arges, Jiu, Buzau, Bistrita etc.
Lakes: approximately 2,300 lakes and over 1,150 ponds (2,650 sq.km). The best known are Razelm (415 sq.km), Sinoe (171 sq.km), Brates (21 sq.km), Tasaul (20 sq.km), Techirghiol (12 sq.km) and Snagov (5.8 sq.km).

Climate: Temperate continental, with oceanic influences from the West, Mediteranean from the South-West, excessive continental from the North-East. Mean annual temperatures: ranging between 8C in the North and 11C in the South. Average annual rainfall does not exceed 700 m.

Population: (according to the January 1992 census) 22,788,993 inhabitants.
Density:95.7 inhabitants per sq.km. About 9 million Romanians live abroad - in Europe, about 4 million in the Republic of Moldova and 2 million in Hungary, Serbia, Greece, Albania; over 2 million in the United States of America and Canada; others in South America, South Africa and Australia.
Distribution by age groups: 0-14 years - 22.7%, 15-18 years - 7.4%, 20-34 years - 22.3%, 35-54 years - 25.3%, 55-64 years - 11.4%, 70-79 years - 6.4%, over 80 years - 4.5%.

Demographic structure: Romanians - 89.47%; Hungarians (plus Szecklers) - 7.12%; Gypsies - 1.76%; other nationalities - 1.65%.

Life expectancy - men 66.5 years; women 73.2 years.

Population growth (census years): 8,600,000 (1859), 12,923,600 (1912), 18,052,896 (1930), 15,872,624 (1948), 17,489,450 (1956), 19,103,163 (1966), 21,559,910 (1977).

Capital: Bucharest municipality (1,521 sq.km, divided into six administrative districts, with a population of 2,066,723 lies in the South-Eastern part of the country, in the Romanian Plain (altitude 85 m). It dates back to the 14th century and the first written attestation dates as early as 1459, as residence of prince Vlad the Impaler. Capital of Wallachia in the 17th-19th centuries and then of Romania since 1862, Bucharest is the most important political, economic, cultural and scientific centre of the country. It is crossed by the river Dambovita and is bordered by pitoresque lakes on the valley of Colentina. Bucharest is a city featuring a rich vegetetion, wide parks, which has inspired the name of 'garden-city'.
Bucharest is a lively city with monumental buildings, outstanding architectural values, interesting museums, theatres, opera house, exhibition halls, memorial houses, universities, central public and administrative offices. The Parliament Palace, for instance, is the second largest building in the world, behind the Pentagon. Bucharest is also the largest industrial centre of Romania, with numerous factories and plants of all kinds (iron-and-steel, engineering, fine mechanics, tanning yards, food industry).

Administrative division: 41 counties and Bucharest municipality (with a county status), 260 towns (out of which 57 municipalities), 2,688 communes (with about 13,000 villages).
Main cities: (inhabitants as of 7 January 1992): Constanta (350,581), Iasi (344,425), Timisoara (334,115), Cluj-Napoca (328,602), Galati (326,141), Brasov (323,786), Craiova (303,959). Twenty-five cities have a population of over 100,000, while eight cities exceed 300,000.

Port towns:
By the Black Sea: Constanta (can take ships of over 150,000 dwt). Mangalia and Sulina (free port).
On the Danube: Turnu Severin, Turnu Magurele, Giurgiu, Oltenita, Cernavoda, Braila, Galati, Tulcea (these last three are both river and sea ports).
The Danube-Black Sea Canal: (64.2 km long) between Cernavoda and Agigea-Constanta was opened to traffic in 1984. Following the inauguration of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in 1992, it facilitates a direct connection to the North Sea. It is navigable for river and sea-going ships of up to 5,000 dwt.

Airports: Bucharest-Otopeni, Constanta-Mihail Kogalniceanu, Suceava, Arad, Timisoara (all for international traffic, as well), Bacau, Baia Mare, Bucharest-Baneasa, Caransebes, Cluj, Craiova, Deva, Iasi, Oradea, Satu-Mare, Targu Mures, Tulcea.

National flag:
Three equal vertical stripes - red, yellow and blue (next to the staff).

National Coat-of-Arms:
(since 1992)
An eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sword and a sceptre in its claws, as well as the symbols of the five historical provinces - Wallachia, Moldova, Transylvania, Banat and Dobrogea.

National day:
December 1 (anniversary of the 1918 union of all Romanians into a single state).

Form of government:
Republic, according to the Constitution voted by Parliament on 21 November 1991 and validated by national referendum on 8 December 1991. The two-chamber Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate), elected for a four-year term, is the people's supreme representative body and the sole law-making autority. The president is elected by universal vote for two four-year terms at the most. The Government, validated by Parliament, provides general management of the public administration.
The data featured in this page is taken from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania (2000)