Info: State of the Environment - Tajikistan - Biodiversity
Tajikistan has a variety of habitats and ecosystems. Large differences in altitude, topography, climate and soil give rise to different natural environments ranging from deserts of Southern Tajikistan to alpine environments on Pamir. Climatic features, rich vegetation and landscape variety favor to the evolving and the spread of different species of animals and plants. Tajikistan boasts a great diversity of both flora and fauna. Generally, there are about 80 species of mammals, 360 species of settled and migration birds, 49 species of fishes, 44 species of reptilians in Tajikistan. More then 5 thousands species of plants can be found in Tajikistan.
The representatives of the animal world make their contribution to the soil formation and fertility, enriching it by organic substances, improving soil characteristics, creating favorable conditions for evolving of various microorganism. Animals play a great role in the natural cycles of plant growing as well as in vegetable community formations. Fertility of fruit trees and other cultures depends on insects' activity. Many plants' distribution area together with climatic factor is also connected with the activity of animals. Birds distribute plant seeds over the large distances. Birds and some mammals also play the significant role in protection of plants. Birds reduce the number of insects-pests, thereby prevent the bursts of their mass-scale reproduction. The prey birds protect harvests from numerous rodents. The number of protectors of plants also includes some insects successfully used for biological protection of agricultural crops as an alternative to chemical methods of protection. Animals and plants are the integral part of landscapes. The number of animal world representatives depends on many factors, including human activity. The reduction of number of one specie of animals instantly impacts the reduction or increase of the number of other animal specie. Most species depend on one another - directly or indirectly - for their survival. Because species in ecosystems are interdependent, the loss of one species may lead to the loss of others as well. Besides, animals and plants are natural indicators of environmental state. Links between animal and vegetable world are direct and very closed.