Tajikistan is situated in the Central Asia between 36040’-42o of nothern lalitude and 67031’-75014’ of eastern longitude, nearly at the same level with Greece. The border length is 3000 km. The country stretches as long as 700 km from east to west and 350 km from south to north. Tajikistan borders with China, Afganistan, Kyrgystan and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan differs by it's contrast relief. Large differences in altitude (300-7495 m above the sea level), topography, climate and soil give rise to different natural environments ranging from deserts of Southern Tajikistan to alpine environments on Pamir. Tajikistan divedes into 4 natural-climatic zones: Nothern Tajikistan, Southern Tajikistan, Central Tajikistan and Pamir.
There are many mountain ranges which divide Tajikistan into several contrasting climatic zones (especially Western and Eastern Pamir). Geografic location of Tajikistan is peculiar, because the country is situated far from oceans and seas, within the continent of Eurasia. That is why its climate is arid, being characterised by swift seasonal and daily fluctations of meteorological components. Its specific feature is the high intensity of solar radiation (151 - 176 kkal/cm2), aridity, small cloudiness, the large duration of sunshine, etc. An annual precipitation varies from 69 to 1800 mm. Absolute minimum temperature has been observed on the territory closely adjacent to Bulunkul lake: -65C (Eastern Pamir), while in the lower reaches of river Panji the maximal temperature is +50C (Southern Tajikistan).
Tajikistan is reach by minerals resources: coal, peat, zinc, arsenic, mercury, andezit, barite, talc, serpentit, agate, quartz, basalt, granite, diorite, marble, etc.
Tajikistan is reach in water resources. There are many rivers and lakes on the territory of Tajikistan. Most of the lakes (80%) has the surface area less 1 km2. Generally, they are tectonic and moraine origin. The total number of lakes exceeds 1300, while most of them are situated at an elevation more 3000 m above the sea level. The largest natural lake is Caracul with a salty water. The surface area of the lake is about 380 km2. The deepest and potentially disastrous lake is Sarezskoe lake (impounded lake). The water volume of Sarezskoe lake is about 18.9 km3 and the depth exceeds 440 meters. The majority of the lakes is situated on the territory of south-western Tajikistan (so-called Pamir). Tajikistan rivers can be divided into three main river systems: Syrdaria basin - Northern Tajikistan, Zeravshan basin - Central Tajikistan, and Amudaria basin -Southern Tajikistan. There are approximately 947 rivers (more than 10 km long), with the total length of 28,500 km.
Stores of water in glaciers a few times exceed annual stock of Aral sea. Contemporary glacial covering of Tajikistan occupies a square 8470 km2 (country area's 6%). About 7564 km2 is glacial covering of Pamir (90% of the total glaciation of Tajikistan). Regular snow line belongs to the altitudes of 2800-3500 m. Glaciers are an integral part of landscape diversity of Tajikistan.
The vegetation of Tajikistan is rich and diverse, with numerous relict and endemic plants, while forests occupy less 3% of country. Alongside with forests, vegetation plays the principal role in natural ecosystems and it is an integral part of “alive” landscape as well.
The animal world is represented by variety of different species: deer, wolf, snow leopard, argali, lynx, tolai hare, eagle, sparrow, falcon, trout etc.