In the chapter 40 of the "Agenda-21"
regarding the information need for decision making grounds are
given for the necessity of improving possibilities for the organisation
of the information provision with the purpose of simplifying of
the access to the information on environment. The main task of
"The program of environmental assessment" UNEP is to
facilitate the access of the world community to the reliable and
actual data and information and to assist in improving capacities
of the government to use the information on environment when making
decisions and planning actions aimed at the provision of a sustainable
development of the mankind.
With the purpose of satisfying of the
requirements the UNEP provides to developing countries and countries
with the transition economy a preparatory assistance on the strengthening
of their management systems with ecological data and information.
The result of the program will be an operating global network
of ecological information. The approach used by UNEP foresees
4 stages of work (assessment, feasibility study, realisation,
exploitation) for which main principles are elaborated to determine
their implementation. From all these stages the most important
is the feasibility study which allows to determine forthcoming
actions to lay grounds for the future network, to start experimental
works and to safeguard receiving of funds for the realisation
and implementation of the network.
To asses comprehensively the potential
and requirements of the systems of ecological information in Tadjikistan
and to propose measures required for the strengthening of the
existing potential with the purpose of improving of the access
to ecological information for decision making.. It includes creation
of the institutional basis of the network incorporating relevant
national, regional and global ecological and sectoral departments
and sponsors' organisations
The Republic of Tadjikistan is relatively young state. Yet its ethnic groups have rich history. Majority of Tadjiks live abroad.
Tadjiks descend from eastern Iranian ethnicity (Bactrians and Sogdians) who had dwelled ancient states of Bactria and Sogd back in 7th 6th cc. BC. On the moment these are the territories of Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, South Iran and North Afghanistan. Sogd and Bactria, losing their independence from time to time, had been joining the Akhmenid state, Alexander's Empire, Seleukides' State, Greek Bactrian Kingdom, Kushan and Euphtalites Empires. Following long period of the Arabic conquering and adoption of Islam back in 11th c. AD, the Sogdian and Bactrian languages were replaced by Farsi-Dari-Tadjik. The Tadjik nation, with its capital in Bukhara (9th and 10 th cc AD), has become the nucleus of the Samanide State. Following displacement of Samanides by the Turkic Karakhanides, Tadjiks fell part of the Gaznevide Empire, Seljukides State, that of Khorezmshakhs and Gourids, the Mogul Empire, and the State of Timurides.
From the 16th c. AD, when the territories occupied by the Tadjik tribes were captured by the Turkic Sheibanides, cultural divergence has occurred that finally disintegrated the Iranians and Tadjiks, being reinforced by diverse Islamic believes such as Persian Schii, or Sunni Tadjiks. Until the 20th c. Tadjiks have entered different states being ruled by Turkic dynasties, yet where the Tadjik language was the formal one.
In 1924 the Tadjik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established, being the part of the Uzbek SSR. It was made up of 12 Provinces of the Turkestan Area, East Bukhara and partially Pamir ridges.
The newly emerged republics, including Tadjikistan (since 1929) were governed following the public pattern, given ignorance of many established customs of diverse ethnic groups. New industrial bases got established and collectivisation arranged, the latter having caused independent peasants to vanish. Illiteracy campaign of 1929 -1936 resulted in 72% of literacy rate back in 1937. During the Soviet period, Tadjikistan got fully integrated into the all-Union economic cycle, being much independent on the "Centre" .
Tadjikistan proclaimed its independence
in 1990. Following the August 1991 coup in Moscow, the Supreme
Council of the Republic has passed Regulation on National Sovereignty
of the Republic of Tadjikistan. Long-term power struggle began
after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Confrontation of the old
Soviet elite against the then opposed coalition of Islamists,
nationalist-minded intelligentsia and entrepreneurs has grown
into the struggle between regional groups. Manifestations and
negotiations got transformed into armoured confrontation in Dushanbe,
that latter caught regions. Since that time and until the Cease-fire
Agreement was signed in the end of 1994, armoured conflicts have
been emerging now and then, particularly in South Tadjikistan.
Back in November 1994, a nation wide voting on adoption of the
new Constitution and Presidential election was arranged. Three
months later, Parliament election campaign took place in February
2.1.1. Geographic Position. Upper
Watershed Borders. General Description. Location Map
The Republic of Tadjikistan is situated in the Central Asia between 36o40' of the northern latitude and 67o31' and 75o14' of the eastern longitude, nearly at the same level with Greece, or southern areas of Spain or Italy. The Republic of Tadjikistan stretches as long as 700km from west to east, and 350 km from the north to the south. Acreage rates 143 km2. It was complex contours, that reflect historic and geographic peculiarities of the Tadjik dwelling mode across the Central Asia. Its borders with China, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan respectively stretch for 430 km, 1030 km, 950 km and 590 km. There is narrow band of the Afghan territory in the south-east of Tadjikistan, that ranges between 15 to 65 km in width.
In the west it embraces desert and semi-desert fragments of the Turan Lowlands that got transformed into piedmonts.
Mountainous ridges of Tyuan Shan and
Pamir are located in the east; is where the highest peaks in
the Central Asia may be found. The mountains occupy 93% of its
territory, while almost the half of the country is located above
3000m on the sea level.
The Tadjik climates gets formatted as being influenced by the interaction of a number of factors determined, primarily, by its geographic location, surface composition, air circulation and sun radiation, the latter being the most significant of all. Geographic location of Tadjikistan is peculiar because the country is situated far from open oceans and seas, within the continent of Eurasia. That is why its climate is sharply continental, being characterised by swift seasonal and daily fluctuations of meteorological components. Relatively cold winter is suddenly replaced by rainy spring, that is, also suddenly, followed by arid summer, given almost entire absence of precipitation throughout several months, while highland regions of Pamir make an exception.
Warm and dry weather in autumn is suddenly replaced by cold and rainy, often frosty one, quickly followed by warm sunny days.
South oriented location of Tadjikistan (36-42o n.Lat.) provides for the high solstice. Annual average sunshine ranges between 2,097 and 3,166 hours. During the winter and summer solstice periods, the sun height rates 28o and nearly 75o respectively. In this respect, annual average of the aggregate radiation reaches 151 to 176 kKal/sm2.
Complexity of the relief and big amplitude of heights of mountain system leads to formation of local types of climate. The lowest annual average temperature is at highlands, while it declines as the height of a location gets less. Thus, Gorbunov meteostation (4,169m) it equals 6.9o, while in the extreme south-west (Aivadj and Shaatuz) it increases up to 16.4-17,2o.
As regards lowlands and piedmont regions of Tadjikistan, average temperatures of the coldest month, January, range between + 2o to -2oC. Temperatures that are higher than +2oC are typical for the lower parts of Kafirnigan and western part of Gissar Valley, that range between up to 700m above the sea level. The zero isotherm of January is observed at considerably higher highs than those in many other parts of the Central Asia. The positive January temperature value ranges between 900 and 1,100m, as regards southern parts of Tadjikistan.
Annual flow of precipitation is not
adequate in diverse regions of the country. In the majority of
regions, the maximal amount of precipitation falls onto the cold
season, i.e. nearly 65% of the annual value on average.
The population of the Republic of Tadjikistan was as much as 5,885.3 thousand people as of January 1st, 1996. Total birth and death rates in 1995 (as per 1.000 people) made 28,4 and 6,0. As compared to 1994, the total of the defunct has fallen by 25%, and the total birth rate by 0,2 points.
The Republic of Tadjikistan may be characterised by uneven popular distribution. The most densely dwelled are lowland valleys, less are mountainous river valleys, slopes and canyons provide for uneven settlements spots, divided by mountain ranges and indwelled spaces. Some areas of Badakhshan Highlands Autonomous Region (BHAR) lack permanent settlements but have only seasonal ones, such as Sangvor pastures.
The high concentration of the population has been registered in some low lands, and in the oases.
Large fluctuations of the territory of the Republic as regards altitude zones, climatic and natural conditions at its various areas, provide for difference in popular growth rates, shapes settlement takes, and density.
The density of the population is characterised by large unevenness and ranges between 3.1 people in BHAR, and 80,8 people in Halton region. Such contrast is due to high geographical location of the latter (particularly, Vaksh Valley). The low density of the population in mountains and lowlands is primarily because of unfavourable natural and climatic conditions which draw back the economic exploration and development of those regions.
Unevenness of the dwelling of vertical belts is related to availability of the lands that can be both used and allocated to water resources. Differences in structure and output intensiveness, as regards labour efficiency and income level of rural sector, correspond to those in climatic conditions, and the density of population divided by altitude belts. The bulk of arable lands is located at up to 1000 m that are characterised by high density of the population (67,7 people per km2). Within the 1500-2000 m there are separate boggier areas and pastures, within the rural density equalling 9,6 people, where dwelled areas are interlaced with indwelled ones, i.e the settlement is spot-typed. Up to 3000 m there are major pastures, where the rural density is low, down to 1.5 people per km2. The spot-type dwelling is mixed up with single settlements considerably removed from each other.
The Republic of Tadjikistan is a multinational
state. Tadjiks, its indigenous population, make up the majority
of the population. Their share in the total mix of the population
increased from 56,2% in 1970 up to 62.29% in 1989.
2.1.4. Major Economic Segments And
Development of the economic segments in the Republic of Tadjikistan back in 1995, followed the pattern that has been typical for the last four years, characterised by substantial increase of the commercial share in the gross national product and national income values.
Being one of the crucial segments of the economy, rural industry back in 1991 produced 43% of the national income, as it has lower material costs as compared with industry, given output. Yet, during the last 4 years its share has inevitably been declining due to sharp break up of physical volumes of output in the rural sector.
Substantial decline of investments into the Republic could not but influence macroeconomics developments. For example, in 1990 the country earned up to 15% of the total value of the gross national income due to the construction industry. Then its share has fallen down from year to year, so in 1995 it has made over 8%.
The gross domestic income value in 1995 made 87,6 of the production national income, as compared to 1994.
Its worth mentioning though that as regards macroeconomics developments, there was some lag in decline pace in 1995. The gross domestic product is known to get declined by 21% against 1993, while the national income by 17%.
Now one can say that the Republic of Tadjikistan is even poorer than South Mozambique, formally the poorest country in the world. There are 80 dollars of the gross national income per capita per year there. In Tadjikistan, this value rates nearly 18$ at the present exchange rate. Average salary, as regards the national economy on the whole, rated about 4$ in 1995.
Review of the industrial output dynamics for the recent few years proves that the monthly average volume decline rate has fallen from 3% in1994 to 0,45% in 1995. this makes one assume that the peak of the industrial crisis has passed, and the commercial output would reach the pre-war level over the period of time. On the moment our input is twice as little against the 1990 values.
Further to the Gosstatagenstvo (Government
Agency for Statistics), back in 1995 Goscomprom, our leading industrial
company, has provided output at the level of 102,6% as compared
to 1994. Reference on the major economic segments of the Republic
of Tadjikistan in 1995 is given below.
Industry As noted above, the gross value of the commercial output in 1995 rated (as in effective prices) Rbl. 86, 308M, given the growth rate per year totalling 94,9%.
It is worth mentioning that a number of ministries and government agencies have recovered or even overlapped the 1994 level of output. These include Goscomprom (102,6%, Glavhlopkoprom (104,85), Oil and Gas Committee. (122,6)
As regards industries on the whole, price growth index per year made more than 3 times.
The sectors that should be notified
particularly are electricity, as the prices there have grown by
5.6 times; non-ferrous metallurgy and construction materials industry
(4,6 times); prices in meat industry have increased by almost
Electricity. This segment has been operating in a stable way for a number of years. Yet it was 1995 that was the most unfavorable from the point of view of electricity producers, mainly because of insufficiency of water in rivers. Further to the Hidromet data, river flow rate for 6 months of 1995 has made 68.4% against the 1994 level.
In 1995, enterprises of Barki Tochik
State Holding Company produced 14.759 M kWt h of electricity,
including 14,591 MkWt h by hydropower stations. As compared to
the previous year, it rates 86.9% and 87,4% respectively. As regards
1991, the production output was nearly at the same level.
Oil industry. In 1995, the sector has reached certain stabilisation, as compared with the previous year. It is reflected in production output growth rate, that makes 122,6%.
In 1995 they managed to capture decline in, and even increase the gas production volume. As much as 38,7Mm3 of the natural gas were produced during the year, given the annual growth of 16%. All in all, in 1995 they produced 25.8 thousand tons of oil, including gas condensate, that is by 21% and by 76% less than in 1994 and 1991 respectively.
2,034 tons of petrol, 1532 tons of diesel
fuel, 244 tons of kerosene, and 7.367 tons of crude oil were produced
in 1995 that has considerably overlapped the 1994 developments.
Leninabadugol Mining Corporation, that used to be Tadjik Miners
Management Board and the major coal supplier in the country, part
of its production exported to Fergana HPS, Uzbekistan and some
Turkmenistan and Kyrgyz companies. In 1995 mining output just
27,1 thousand tons.
Chemical industry In 1995 out put of chemical enterprises valued Rbl. 4.2 B. or by Rbl. 384 as much as in 1994, that implies overall improvement of the sectoral environment.
Isfara chemical plant is the only enterprise in the Central Asia that produces explosives.
They produced 48.7 thousand tons, or 82% of explosives in 1995 against 1994.
Following long delay in production -
from August 1, to May 1995 because of unavailability of compressor
oil, monoethanoalmine solution, and a number of other chemicals,
Vaksh Nitrate and Mineral Fertilisers Plant has resumed and overlapped
its previous production volumes of 1994 both in terms of price
and in kind; production of carbamide totalled 27.3 thousand tons,
or nearly twice as much as in the previous year.
Being the largest and most promising industry, it shared 74,8%
in the total amount of Goskomprom production. Industrial enterprises
have produced as much as Rbl B. Hence the major share of output
is with the Tajik Aluminium plant, which produces 95% of the total
output in terms of the segment.
Machinery and Metal Processing. The machinery and metal processing industry of the country is represented by five corporations, seven plants and two rental enterprises.
Output growth rates in 1995, as regards
the whole industry, make 105% vs. 1994. Production output value
rates Rbl. 724,8 M.
Rural Industry Climatic conditions of 1995 did not allow to provide high level of spring field works. Unavailability of fuel and grease supplies, fertilisers and chemicals, and of rural machinery and spares was another substantial reason that constrained due performance of the relevant rural operations. As a result, cotton crops occupied 10,790 ha as little vs. 1994.
Livestock production arrangements were also un-satisfying. Further to the 1995 outcome, there were 48 heads of newly born calves vs 57 in 1994, and 266 heads of pigs vs. 963 respectively. There is a high rate of cattle plague. For the period, there fell and got plagued 4.9 heads of cattle, 16 pigs, 54,4 goats and sheep, and 1,380 heads of poultry. BHAR entities rate first (7-12%) in the cattle plague.
Decrease of cattle and poultry productivity grew permanent, as regards public entities. Thus, further to the premature estimates, average milk yield from a cow rated 1,071 kg(1995), egg productivity of hens respectively did 53pcs.vs. 73 and 160.
Further to the lack of fuel, inflation
of electricity charges, deforestation has been taking place in
many regions, that would result in irreversible environmental
consequences, and it is not only Tadjikistan that is of major
concern, but the whole of the CAR.
Tadjikistan is the main zone of flow formation in the Aral Sea basin. The majority of ecological problems appear with respect to water resources use. Some 64 m3 of water is formed annually on the territory of Tadjikistan and 500 m3 of water is accumulated in glaciers (the total number of glaciers is 8492 with the total area of 8476,2 km2). The water resources being the natural wealth promote at the same time to the occurrence of such natural calamities as mud flows, floods, waterlogging, salinisation, pollution and etc. In the result of these occurrences degradation processes took place in all the components of the environment. Hydroworks, roads, river banks are being destroyed, forests and individual species of fauna are disappearing, quality of the environment is deteriorating, fish catch is reducing and etc. Purification of waste waters has become a great problem. In 1994 some 109,57 mln.m3 of polluted waste waters had been diverted to the surface water reservoirs. In the result, the quality of the major part of water sources do not meet the requirements of sanitary and ecological normatives. In the republic 65% of the population uses tap water for domestic and drinking needs and some 35% uses water from rivers, canals, wells, i.e water which doesn't correspond to the edidemiologic standards. From the total number of rural population only 51% are provided with tap water, 34% of water supply lines fail to meet sanitary norms and this causes the outbreaks of typhoid fever, hepatitis, dysentery and other infectious illnesses in the Republic
The collector and drainage waters enriched with salts and agricultural wastes (waste waters) returning to river basins deteriorate the quality in water sources, lead to the deterioration of the ecological condition of water, soil and life conditions of the population. Especially, in this respect it is necessary to mention the Syrdarya river basin where the mineralisation of water amounts to 1-2 g/l and the sources of river pollution are the irrigated lands of the Fergana valley in Uzbekistan.
There are also problems related to the pollution of ground waters in Tadjikistan. For example, among the enterprises of chemical industry the polluters of the underground waters are:
Vaksh nitrogen fertiliser plant 1,4-2,5 MPC
Yavansky electrochemical plant 15 and more MPC
Tadjik aluminium plant 1,6-2,1 MPC and others.
The main problem in the system of land use is land erosion. At present, the areas of agricultural lands liable to water erosion represent a considerable part of lands. More than 292 ha of plowed field, 734 ha are already eroded. Besides that, the potential erosion-unsafe plowed fields comprise 374 ha. Therewith, the area of lands liable to direct irrigation erosion comprise 260 ha or 36% of irrigated lands in Tadjikistan. In the result of intensive irrigation erosion together with fertile particles of grounds a considerable part of mineral fertilisers, pesticides are washed out from irrigated field polluting eventually water flow in the irrigation systems.
In order to suspend and liquidate erosion processes it is required to have a reliable information on occurrence of erosion, determination of load on pastures for different types of cattle, influence and assessment of the condition of lands suffered from different types of erosion, definition of the ways to increase the productivity of eroded lands and application of comprehensive anti-erosion measures.
At present time with 720 ha of the total area of irrigated lands more than 120 ha are salinised.
A special concern is related to the development of erosion processes on the main irrigation areas: in Beshkent, Yavan, Obikiik and Dangarin valleys. The deterioration of the ecological and melioration condition of Isfar-Lyakan valley in the result of partial flooding and salinisation of agricultural fields and populated areas also requires an immediate solution.
The problem of air pollution became tangible at the end of 80s in different periods of a year . In Dushanbe city concentration of methanol, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide was at the level of 3-8 MPC.
Disposal of harmful substances to the atmosphere from stationary sources comprises 1290 ths tons per year, including gaseous and liquid - 86,6 ths tons per year. In Dushanbe, Tursun-Zade, Yavan, Khudjant, Kurgan-Tyube concentration of polluting substances exceeds considerably the maximum permissible level.
The process of forests degradation is of a special concern. In the last years the development of new territories, appearance of new villages and lack of fuel led to destructive deforestation. In the result of these processes the areas under forests are diminished and what is more important, the number of valuable and endemic types of plants is reducing. The monitoring on the condition of these plants allows to elaborate concrete measures on their protection and rational use.
Urbanisation processes and deterioration
of the socio-economic situation resulted on the condition of fauna.
The monitoring of fauna is not performed adequately.Three natural
reserves fell within the zone of war actions. At present, the
situation in the zone of natural reserves is normal but in order
to bring them to the level of 1985-90 years a lot of efforts and
expenditures are required.
Frameworks of the legislation on environment protection
The relations in the sphere of nature protection in the R-c of Tadjikistan are regulated by the Constitution of the R-c of Tadjikistan, the law on nature protection, land , water, forest legislation, legislation on subsoil assets, on protection of atmospheric air, flora and fauna and by the legislation acts of the R-c of Tadjikistan on nature protection which are elaborated in accordance with the abovementioned laws.
In connection with this, the direction of the ecologic policy of the Republic of Tadjikistan is determined in the adopted laws and sublaws of the RT which contain the following principles:
Currently existing nature protection legislation of Tadjikistan envisages the following groups of legal acts: Laws, Governmental normative acts. Criminal and administrative liability are foreseen for the violations in the sphere of nature protection.
The principal act among the legislative acts on environment protection is "The Law of the R-c of Tadjikistan on nature protection" adopted by the Supreme Council of the RT on December 27, 1993. This law establishes legal, economic and institutional principles of environment protection and rational use of natural resources, defines responsibilities of state power organs in the sphere of regulation of legal relations in nature protection and nature use, rights and obligations of the citizens of the republic in the sphere of nature protection., determines specially authorised organs of the state control on nature protection and nature use.
The existing legislative acts in the
sphere of environment protection are attached.
Within the frameworks of the adopted "Law of the RT on nature protection" the state control on nature protection is effected by the Parliament, Government of ht republic, local administration and specially authorised organs on nature protection and nature use:Ministry of Nature Protection, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior and Committee on state control for the safety in industry and mining. These organs are authorised by this Law to carry out state control on observance of the legislation on environment protection and nature resources use.
Moreover, the Ministry of Nature Protection
is vested with great authorities. It performs the state control
on observance of the legislation in the sphere of nature protection,
land use, subsoil assets, forests, flora and fauna and atmospheric
air by all ministries and official departments, enterprises, institutions,
organisations and individual persons. In the regions, provinces
and cities of the republic committees on nature protection are
in place. In accordance with the article 13 of "The Law on
nature protection of the Republic of Tadjikistan" the citizens
of the RT are entitled to participate and effect control in elaboration,
adoption and realisation of decision associated with any impact
The state committee on nature protection of Tadjik SSR was founded in 1988 on the base of the subdivisions of Tadjikgidromet, Ministry of Water Economy, Gosagroprom, PA "Tadjikgoelogy", Tadjikles, Department "Vostsredazrybvod". Six republican special inspections, province, city and region subdivisions on sites were included in the system of State Committee of Nature Protection.. The State Committee was entrusted with the responsibility for nature protection, organisation of rational use and reproduction of natural resources.
Moreover, the state system of nature protection included nature protection functions left with the Min. of water resources, PA "Tadjikgeology", Tadjikgidromet, Tadjikles, Min. of agriculture, Ministry of health, Ministry of interior.
The interrelations between The State Committee for Nature Protection, ministries and official departments were determined in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Council of Ministers ¹ 32 on "Radical reformation in the sphere of nature protection in the country", Resolution of the Council of Ministers of Tadjik SSR of 15.08.88 ¹ 234, existing order of interaction and protocols of differentiation of functions.
Therewith, the main purposes were:
Institutional Scheme of the Ministry
of Nature Protection
The structure of the Ministry: Administration body which consist of Controlling-expedition Department, Department of Science and Standardisation, Department of information and international relations, Department of ecological and economic normative, Department of propaganda and ecological knowledge's, Juridical Department, Planning and Financial Department, Accounting Department, Administration and economic Dpt.
Minister of nature protection - general leadership of the ministry, supervision on the activity of the Department for information and international relations, planning and financial department, accounting department, personnel department.
Deputy Minister - supervision on the activity of the department for science and standardisation, the department of ecological and economic normative, administrative and economic department.
Department of the Minister - supervision of Glavgidromet and anti-hail service.
Three scientific subdivisions are under the Ministry of nature protection:
Tadjik scientific-research centre on water resources protection;
Republican self-financing scientific-production information centre "Tabiat";
Scientific-research laboratory on nature protection.
Eight state special inspection commissions are in the system of the Ministry of nature protection:
-specialised inspection on the analytical control;
-special inspection of state control on the use and protection of the atmospheric air;
-special state inspection for the control over the use and protection of water;
-special inspection of state control over the use of fish stocks;
-special inspection for state control on the use of wastes and secondary resources;
-specialised inspection of state control on the use and protection of land;
-specialised inspection of state control on ecological examination.
The structure of the Ministry also includes Glavgidromet and anti-hail service.
Other official departments engaged in data management :
Ministry of health - performs state control on the sanitary-epidemic condition of the environment, elaborates and approves sanitary normatives for the quality of atmospheric air, water and foodstuff.
Ministry of interior - performs state control on the protection of the atmospheric air.
State control in mining industry (Gosgortechnadzor) - performs state control on the protection and use of subsoil assets, radiation status.
Ministry of agriculture - performs control on the storage, transportation, application of chemical fertilisers, herbicides, defoliants and determines the content of residual quantity of pesticides in water, soil, plants.
Forest economy production association "Tadjikles" executes the functions of protection, preservation of forests and forest reproduction.
State Committee for statistics - provides in terms of statistical reporting with the information (annual bulletin) on the condition of the atmosphere, water environment and water resources.
Financial of the activity and arrangements
conducted by the Ministry of nature protection is effected from
the budget and out-of -budget Fund for nature protection formed
with the means received in the result of controlling - inspection
activity of state inspection activity of state inspections (payments
for the pollution of environment by economic objects and individuals,
for the stowage of wastes, issue of licences for the use of flora,
flora, fauna and fish resources, penalties and suits for the violations
of the legislation on nature protection).
Education. In a separate section of the Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan on "Nature protection" (p.73-74)
the following is established: the comprehensiveness and continuity of ecological education, which covers the whole process of school, pre-school education, professional training of specialists in secondary and higher educational institutions, professional development with the use of mass media, compulsory teaching of ecological knowledges in all educational establishments, professional training on ecology for the personnel and specialists.
The Ministry of nature protection prepared and the Government approved the State Program for education of the population for the period up to the year 2010.
Nowadays the institute sub-faculties of ecology exist in :
- Tadjik state University,
- Tadjik technical University (sub-faculty for the safety measures and industrial ecology),
- Tadjik pedagogical University named after Djuraev K.,
- Khodjent state University named after Gafurov B.
Hydrometeorology departments operate
under the physical faculty of the Tadjik state University and
Tadjik industrial college.
Non-governmental organisations. The major of them are:
- the Republican society for nature protection - the task of the society is to form public movement in the republic and propaganda of nature protection knowledge's,
- the Republican Union of ecologists and specialists in climate - the task of the union is to combine the scientific potential of the republic with the purpose of solving tasks acute for the region in the sphere of establishing new technologies and realisation of the program on monitoring of environment,
- the Fund of ecology and health,
- the Fund for supporting citizens' initiatives.
As a whole for the republic a short-term,
informal ecological associations are characteristic, the main
purpose of which is the solution of specific ecological tasks.
3.2 The territorial networks of
Administrative units the obligations of which consist of the management of data and information are:
- the Parliament of the republic - performs state control on nature protection,
- the Government of the republic - realises the state ecological policy, co-ordination of the nature protection activity of ministries and official departments, enterprises and organisations, establishes normative and the order of collection of payments for the use of nature resources, makes decisions on the discontinuation of the activity of the objects in case of their violation of a nature protection legislation, guide the international co-operation in the sphere of nature protection.
The Government of the Republic of Tadjikistan has established the Regulation on the Fund for nature protection (1993) , Regulation on payment for land (1993), Regulation on state control on the use of lands (1993), Rates for calculating the amounts of penalties for the violation of forest legislation currently in force.
The Ministry for nature protection of the RT jointly with the Ministry of energy approved a guiding document "Methodical instructions on payment collection for the pollution of environment"
The administrative mechanisms for nature protection are effected. Generally they operate on the basis of permissions and prohibitions.
In the RT the system of investment in the nature protection arrangements is established. In particular, the legislation provides certain privileges and guaranties to foreign investors, which are reflected in the Laws of the RT: the law on "Foreign investments in the RT (1992), "Income tax from the citizens of the RT, foreign citizens and citizens without nationality" (1992), "External economic activity" (1992), and others. The controlling organs secure the safe keeping of the commercial secret".
In the RT the state ecological examination is under the responsibility of the Ministry of nature protection which has in its structure a specialised inspection on the state ecological examination of projects.
The state examination in the republic is regulated by the "Law of the RT on nature protection". In accordance with this law the "Regulation on the state ecological examination in the RT" is elaborated and approved by the Resolution of the Government, (1994, ¹ 156).
Besides that, the Law on nature protection envisage the participation of a general public in conducting of the state ecological examination. The public ecological examination is conducted by independent groups of specialists by the initiative of public organisations and citizens.
On the basis of the Law on nature protection
and Regulation on the state ecological examination a range of
normative-methodical documents is elaborated: "The regulation
on the order of conducting the ecological examination in the RT"
3.3. Obligations in the monitoring
The systems and organs of the ecological monitoring are determined in the article 65 of "The Law of the RT on nature protection".
This public service was created with the purpose of monitoring on physical, chemical, biological processes which occur in the environment; monitoring of the level of pollution of the atmospheric air, soil, water resources , consequences of the impact of pollution on flora and fauna and providing of concerned organisations and population with a current and ecological information on the changes in the environment, prevention's and forecasts on its condition.
Monitoring is effected by the all-state service of Glavgidromet, Ministries, official departments, enterprises, organisations and public associations.
The control on the sanitary-epidemic situation, quality of water for drinking needs is under the responsibility of the Ministry of health of the RT and etc. Financing is effected from the budget.
With the purpose of establishing of the information communication and development of co-operation the Ministry of nature protection of the RT concluded:
The legislative access to the ecological
information is regulated by the law of the RT on nature protection
(27.12.93) and the law of the RT on "Press and other mass
media". These and other legislative acts which regulate the
access to the information are shown in the annex.
3.6 Economic factors
The RT pursue the line of political and economic reformation, conduct the process of transferring the economy to market relations. Therewith, the development of enterprenership, creation of peasant farms, joint enterprises, firms and associations are considered as priority issues. Private property, capitals of investors are taken under the protection of the Government and this is stated in the Constitution of the RT in the constitutional laws and sub-law acts.
Foreign investors and firms are being involved in the economy of the Republic. The process of establishing of joint enterprises, corporations is underway. Projects of joint development of natural resources are being carried out, in particular - gold extraction. Experiments on drip irrigation of plants are conducted, measures are taken on the transferring of agriculture from the extensive way of development to the rational use of lands.
In connection with this, in the present conditions it is necessary to apply a comprehensive transition to new technologies, create a clean production, to introduce the achievements of the scientific-technical progress in the nature protection activity, to suspend the ecologically inadequate projects determined by the state ecological examination and to discontinue the output of ecologically harmful production, to improve the system of management of the ecological processes and their control by forming a careful attitude to nature of the population.
The majority of these arrangements can
not be implemented without the access to the international ecological
In the daily processes the ecological information is applied in the following way:
The needs of rayon and oblast khokimiats: condition of lands, water resources (water application), information on the degree of the negative impact of the nearby industrial objects on the condition of the environment, conclusions of the ecological examination, forecasting of weather phenomena, the extent of the pesticides load, displacement of production forces, presence of wastes, epidemiological condition.
The needs of city khokimiats: information on the degree of pollution of the atmosphere and water environment by the industrial objects, autotransport, condition of water-sewage and gas networks, presence and activity of the non-governmental organisations, possibility of using mass information and education systems, the degree of the urbanisation and de-urbanisation, displacement of production forces, presence of wastes and dumps, their displacement and possibility of their utilisation; sanitary-epidemic condition, ecological examination on city construction, socio-economic state of the population.
The needs of the population: the actual
information from khokimiats regarding the condition of the environment
in the given region.
Presently, in the sphere of collection, processing and dissemination of information the specialists, leaders act on the basis of the Law on nature protection (27.12.93) and the Resolution of the Parliament of the RT on "Introducing amendments in the Law of the RT", "Press and other mass media' and "Publishing activity" (19.01.96 ¹458)
With the consideration of the development of the international co-operation, presence of the regional ecological problems and the necessity of their solving the question of the improvement of the existing legislation and creation of new laws in the sphere of collection and exchange of information became acute. New laws shall take into account the status of the full sovereignty of the RT and new possibilities in the sphere of the international co-operation.
Financing of this activity should be
sufficient in order to realise in practice these laws.
At present the RT is in the post-crisis state: in the result of the civil war the stations which operated for the collection and processing of hydrometeorologic and ecological information are destroyed, all existing communication canals are damaged, the government of the country suffer from the lack of financial means for the rehabilitation of all what has been damaged not saying of creating anything new. Without the financial assistance and the technical support of the international organisations the progress of works in the sphere of information technologies is not feasible.
The extent of the efficiency of expenditures
depends primarily from the adequately trained personnel, capability
of managing allocated means.
There is an acute need in the strengthening
of the national network through the preparation of agreements
and joint co-operation projects which allows to exchange the existing
experience in creating the network at the national level, to attract
the experience and capabilities for creating the networks on the
regional and international levels. The example of such co-operation
is the preparation and realisation of the given project.
4.5. Co-operation with international
(world and regional) programs, including ecological databases
of UNEP and the whole UN system.
From the international community the following is required for the information network:
In connection with the fact that in
the republic of Tadjikistan the controlling functions in the sphere
of environment protection are entrusted with the Ministry of nature
protection, the elaboration of legislative and normative documents
with the consideration of specific local conditions as well as
the standardisation in the sphere of ecology are entrusted to
the same ministry. Proceeding from the fact that Tadjikistan is
being integrated in the world community the presence of transboudary
problems with the neighbouring countries (China, Afganistan, Uzbekistan,
Kyrgyzia) the necessity of elaborating of standard methods and
mechanisms of their realisation with the purpose of using the
ecological information on all levels engaged in the management
of environment (local khokimiats, ministries and official departments,
Government, Parliament) in Tadjikistan, is becoming acute. This
assumes the correspondence of being used and elaborated methods
and mechanisms to the international standards.
The existing potential of the information technique do not allow the Ministry to realise the given program in a sufficient way.
In accordance with the existing hierarchy structure of the information traffic on environment as well as with the possibilities of its processing with the consideration of the presence of the relevant personnel, the priority needs in the strengthening of the existing potential of the information technique are the following:
When structuring the national ecological database it is advisable to use the Database Management Systems which are used while operating the database by the international ecological organisations (UNEP, UNDP and others )
The physical condition of the database
and its maintenance depends on the qualification of the personnel
and the quality of the equipment used.
Specialists-ecologists on the preparation of the ecological information to input it to the database - 4 persons.
Technical staff: specialists on creation of databases - 2 persons; specialists on elaboration and creation of users programs - 4 persons; specialists on overall technical maintenance - 4 persons;
Specialists on data management: from the Ministry, oblast, city and rayon committees - 17 persons.
On the first phase it is proposed to assess the existing information environment system and to prepare recommendations on the harmonisation of database among major agencies with the purpose of organising of the all-nation database capable to integrate them and have a relation to the assessment of health and environment.
To prepare project proposal and to connect the Ministry of environment to INTERNET via satellites "Mercury" (the expected project duration 3-5 years with the search of financing sources).
Preparation of annual reports on the
condition of environment in the R-c of Tadjikistan.
1. To organise an interdepartmental seminar on the creation of the information system in Tadjikistan (the first 2 months from the beginning of the project).
2. Training of a limited number of personnel of the Ministry of nature and other ecology organisations for the work with databases. Provision with equipment and software for these purposes (presumably 1-2 years).
3. Preparation and realisation of a
pilot project on GIS methodology in the Ministry of nature in
accordance with the decision of the International conference of
the scientific production association for the environment (1-2
Inspite of a high degree of the priority in the development of ecological information systems in Tadjikistan the following constraints are possible:
- the lack of experience in the work with databases and with the international information networks;
- poor motivation of personnel, qualified
manpower drain due to the restricted financing (reduction in the
number of personnel.
2. List of existing legislation and normative acts of the RT on regulation of ecological relations
3. Proposed model of the data bank for the creation of ecological information system in the RT
4. National reports on the environment
in the RT (2 editions) and ecological bulletin of the Ministry
of nature protection of the RT for the 1st quarter of
Persons, addresses and telephones
ORGANS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TADJIKISTAN
734023, Rudaky avenue, 80
Eshmirzoev Ismat - Vice-Premier 8(3772) 218601
fax 8(3772) 215110
Press-office of the President of
the Republic of Tadjikistan
Saidov Zafar - press-officer 8(3772)
Department of ecology and emergency
Radjapov Sharif - director 8(3772) 214013
fax 8(3772) 215110
THE PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TADJIKISTAN
734051, Rudaky, 42
Radjapov Safaraly - chairman 8(3772)
Committee on women matters, health,
social security and ecology
Khidiraliev Khudjakhmat - Chairman
Ministry of Nature Protection of the Republic of Tadjikistan
734025, Bakhtar street,12
Davlatov Ismail - Minister 8(3772) 232878
fax 8(3772) 211839
Safarov Negmatullo - First Deputy 8(3772) 214271
fax 8(3772) 211839
Kurbanov Abdukarim - Deputy Minister
Gulmakhmadov Davlatsho - Deputy Minister
Main Department on Hydrometeorology and environment monitoring
Shevchenko street 47
Makhmadaliev Bekmurod - Chief 8(3772)
Kazakov Mavlon - First Deputy chairman
and chairman of Hydrometeocenter 8(3772) 278383
Budnik Nina - Chief of the Republican Center
on environment pollution monitoring
Safarov Makhmad - chief of the department
of meteorological forecasts 8(3772)
Department of information and international
Boturov Kadir - Chief 8(3772) 211839
Inspection on ecological examination
Nazarov Timur - General Director
Scientific-research center on water resources protection
Salimov Talbak - Director 8(3772) 324908
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tadjikistan
734025 Shevchenko str., 69
Akhmedov Alamkhon - Minister 8(3772) 213064
fax 8(3772) 217525
telex: 201185, tabib.
Usmanov Ismail - First Deputy Minister
Republican Sanitary- Epidemic station
734025 Shevchenko str.,69
Shadmonov Pirnazar - Deputy Head Physician
Scientific-Research Institute of prophylactic medicine
Shevchenko str., 69
Odinaev Farhad - Director
Ministry of Melioration and water resources of the Republic of Tadjikistan
734001, Rudaky avenue, 78
Ashurov Nurullo - Minister 8(3772) 211012
fax 8(3772) 211012
Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tadjikistan
734025, Rudaky, 14
Baratov Muso - Minister 8(3772) 235354
Department of melioration of lands and
Tabaymurodov Golib 8(3772) 273412
Ministry of Economy and External Economic
Relations of the Republic of Tadjikistan
Boltov Victor 8(3772) 235354
State Industry Committee of the Republic of Tadjikistan
734012, Rudaky, 22
Khakdodov Makhmadsharif - First Deputy
Chairman 8(3772) 218889
State Statistics Agency
734025, Bakhtar str., 17
Gaibullaev Khabib - Director 8(3772)
Committee on emergency situations and civil defence
734025, Bakhtar, 59
Achilov Khusanboy - Chairman 8(3772)
Committee of State Control on the safety
in industry and mining
734055, Karabaev str. 63
Alimov Adkham 8(3772) 348730
Committee on Land Resources
and Land Use Management
Kabilov Bakhtier - Chairman 8(3772)
1. Union of ecologists and specialists on climate of the RT
Aslov Siradjidin - President 8 (3772) 340830
8 (3712) 410541)
Annex ¹ 2
1. Constitution of the Republic
of Tadjik SSR "Prohibition of arbitrary gathering and sale
of mumie and raw material with mumie content" August 28,
3. Law of Tadjik SSR "Constitutional
control in Tadjik SSR" August 27, 1990
4. Law of Tadjik SSR "Ownership
in Tadjik SSR" December 5, 1990
5. Law of Tadjik SSR " Public associations
in Tadjik SSR" December 12, 1990
6. Law of Tadjik SSR " On lease"
December 6, 1990
7. Law of Tadjik SSR " Fund for
liquidation of emergency situations" December 12, 1990
8. Law of Tadjik SSR " Privatisation
of property in Tadjik SSR" February 21, 1991
9. Law of Tadjik SSR " Collection
of taxes from enterprises, associations and organisations"
February 27, 1991
10.Law of Tadjik SSR " Local self-governing
and local farming in Tadjik SSR" February 23, 1991
11.Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Enterprenership activity in the R-c of Tadjikistan, December
12.Law of the R-c of Tadjikistan "Trade
marks and services marks", December 23, 1991
13. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Peasant farming", March 5, 1992
14. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Land charges" March 6, 1992
15 Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Foreign investments in Tadjikistan", March 10, 1992
16. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Arbitrary Courts", March 10, 1992
17. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"State registers" March 1992
18. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"State tax organs in Tadjikistan" March 14, 1992
19. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Land Reform" March 5, 1992
20. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Press and other mass media" March 14, 1992
21. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Strengthening of responsibility for the damage of crops,
mulberries and plantations" June 24, 1993
22. Forest Code of the R-c of Tadjikistan,
June 24, 1993
23. Law on veterinary matters, June
24. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"External economic activity" December 27, 1993
25. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Fund for the liquidation of consequences of emergency situations"
December 27, 1993
26. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"On statistics and accounting" December 27, 1993
27. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"On publishing matters" December 27, 1993
28. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"On nature protection" December 27, 1993
29. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"On introducing changes and amendments in the laws of the
R-c of Tadjikistan
30. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"On subsoil assets" July 20, 1994
31. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"State sanitary control" July 20, 1994
32. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Protection and use of fauna" July 20, 1994
33. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan "Income tax of enterprises and organisations"
July 20, 1994
34. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"On acknowledgement of some legislative acts of the R-c of
Tadjikistan, which became invalid, on the issues of nature protection"
July 21, 1994
35. Resolution of the Parliament of
the R-c of Tadjikistan on "Viena Conventions", International
treaties law" and "Ozone stratum protection" October
36. Law of the Republic of Tadjikistan
"Atmospheric air protection" February 1, 1996
37. Decree of the President of the R-c
of Tadjikistan on "Foundation of National Tourism Company
of the R-c of Tadjikistan" April 8, 1996
Sub-law and normative acts
1. Resolution of the Supreme Council
of the RT on "Formation of state Committee of RT" on
land reform and management of land use" March 13, 1992
2. Resolution of the Supreme Council of the RT on enacting of the Law of the RT on "Land Reform" March 14, 1992
3. Resolution of the Presidium of the
Supreme Council of the RT on "Nature protection" and
Resolution of the Supreme Council of the RT on "The order
of enacting of the Law of the RT on nature protection" April
4. Resolution of the Presidium of the
Supreme Council of the RT on "The drafts of the Law of the
RT", "Fund for the liquidation of consequences of emergency
situations in the RT" and Resolution of the Supreme Council
on the order of enacting of the Law of the RT, "Fund for
liquidation of consequences of emergency situations in the RT"
June 2 1993.
5. Resolution of the Supreme Council
of the RT on enacting of the Forest Code of the RT" June
6. Decree of the President of the R-c
of Tadjikistan on "Establishment of state control on the
sale of medicines, medical ware, medicinal plants and medical
equipment of all state institutions and structures" November
7. Resolution of the Presidium of the
Supreme Council of the RT on "Ratification of the Convention
on prohibition of elaboration, production, accumulation and application
of chemical weapons" signed in Paris on January 13, 1993"
, December 28, 1993.
8. Decree of the President of the R-c
of Tadjikistan on "Introducing of changes to the article
24 of the Water Code of the RT" August 5, 1994.
9. Resolution of the Parliament of the
RT on "The program of economic reformation in the RT for
1995-2000 ", November 2, 1995.
10. Resolution of the Presidium of the Parliament of the RT on "The draft Law of the RT"
on "Introducing changes and amendments
to the Law of the RT", on "Subsoil assets", September
11. Resolution of the Presidium of the Parliament of the RT on "The draft Law of the RT,
"Atmospheric air protection" and package of Resolutions of the Parliament of the RT "On the order of enacting of the Law of the RT on "Atmospheric air protection", October 13, 1995.