|Anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases|
|<< Đ╬2 EMISSIONS >>|
|In Tajikistan in the period of 1990-1998, the
biggest Đ╬2 emissions were observed in 1991 (22658 Gg), mainly because of
combustion of fossil fuels. Totally, the volume of carbon dioxide emissions in the period
under review decreased more than 10 times, mainly because of decline in energy-related
activities. The biggest share of Đ╬2 emissions are: combustion of fossil
fuels, production of cement, aluminum, ammonia and ferrous metals.
CO2 emissions in ôEnergyö sector
In Tajikistan the biggest Đ╬2 emissions were observed in 1991 -21235 Gg, the least in 1998-1524 Gg.
Residential sector is a major source of energy-related CO2 emissions. From year to year, the share of this source amounted 35-45% of total energy related emissions. According to expert judgments this source makes as much as 50% of CO2 emissions considering unaccounted fuel consumption (wood, coal etc.).
Second biggest source of energy-related Đ╬2 emissions is manufacturing industry and construction. These sectors use the fossil fuels (basically gaseous fuel) for its industrial needs. Fossil fuel is needed for manufacturing of cement, aluminum, ammonia, etc. The biggest Đ╬2 emissions in manufacturing industry and construction was indicated in 1991 and amounted 8,279 Gg. In 1998, the volume of CO2 emissions was 193 Gg.
According to expert estimates, there is an uncertainty in data on fuel consumption, especially natural gas. Tendency of fuel combustion does not very coincide with GDP and other dynamics.
There are about 250 thousand vehicles in the country, including 170 thousand individual motorcars. The number of vehicles per capita is relatively low - 24 cars per 1000 people; the biggest number of personal cars per 1000 people is - 31 cars in Dushanbe city. In the period 1990-1998, due to economic crisis and lack of energy carriers, CO2 emissions in transport sector have essentially decreased 9 times, civil aviation 10 times, railway transport 5 times. International bunker has not been considered in national GHG inventory.
Energy industry in Tajikistan is based on hydropower plants. This explains little contribution of energy industry into CO2 emissions. Use of natural gas in heat power plants reduces CO2 emissions in comparison with coal plants. Share of energy industry in CO2 emissions is about 1%. National inventory does not consider consumption of gas in heat power engineering for the period of 1990-1992 due to lack of data. CO2 emissions from biomass combustion have decreased from 93 Gg in 1990 to 5 Gg in 1998.
CO2 emission in Industrial processes
Manufacturing industry makes a significant contribution to national total CO2 emissions. From year to year, contribution of industrial processes ranges from 8% to 18%. The major sources of CO2 emissions are aluminum, cement and ammonia production. In Tajikistan, production of steel and iron is low, therefore, contribution of this sector amounts only 4-108 Gg.
Tajik aluminum plant is the biggest producer of non ferrous metals in Tajikistan. Aluminum plant was built in the southwest of the country, in the city of Tursun-Zade, in 1985. Production of aluminum is based on the method of electrolysis on burned anodes. During processing aluminum, Đ╬2, CF4, C2F6 and other gases occur and affect climate and environment. Contribution of aluminum production in Đ╬2 emissions in the category ôIndustrial processesö is the biggest and in various periods amounted 43-85%. Đ╬2 emissions in aluminum production during 1990 - 1998 dropped from 675 Gg to 293 Gg.
High temperatures in cement manufacturing turn raw materials into clinker. This process forms carbon dioxide (about 0,4985 tons of Đ╬2 per 1 ton of cement) Before 1996, cement production was the second major source of Đ╬2 emissions. However, in the period 1996-1998, the contribution of mineral production to the total emissions decreased to 3-7%, and conceded emissions from ammonia production. Emission coefficient for lime production constitutes 0,79 tons Đ╬2 per 1 ton of final product.
Vakhsh fertilizer plant is the main producer of ammonia in Tajikistan. During 1990-1998, production of ammonia has significantly decreased - from 109,5 to 21,3 thousand tons. Ammonia is being produced from natural gas. About 1,5 tones of Đ╬2 is formed per 1 ton of ammonia. Contribution of ammonia production to the total CO2 emissions in industrial processes makes 8-10%.
Maximum total CO2 emissions in the category ôIndustrial processesö were observed in 1990 and was equal to 1565 Gg, including: metal production-784 Gg, mineral production-617 Gg, production of chemicals -164 Gg. In 1998, due to economic decline, lack of energy resources and decrease in production volume, CO2 emissions in industrial sector decreased 4,6 times. The least significant decrease (2,3 times) was in aluminum production, and the most significant was in mineral production (60 times).
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