The basic state body for natural protection is the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan. Article 86 of the Constitution of Turkmenistan determines obligations of system of local self-management in velayats and etraps to fulfill measures for rational use of natural resources and environmental protection.
The structure of the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection is the following: Research and Production Center of Ecological Monitoring; National Institute of Deserts; Flora and Fauna; 5 regional (velayat) Depatments of Natural Protection - Lebap (Chardjou), Mary (Mary), Dashkhovuz (Dashkhovuz), Balkan (Nebit-Dag), Akhal (Ashgabat, Buzmeyn). They are responsible directly to the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. The decisions for environmental and natural resources are coordinated with regional authorities and bodies of self-management. In some cities (Ashgabat, Buzmeyn, Chardjou) there are available special environmental protection divisions, which are the subsections of ecological departments.
In bodies of urban / village self-management there are also small offices including 1-2 persons, who have responsibility for natural and environmental protection. They are reported to regional units of self-management and work together with the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection.
Practically, the chiefs of local units have the basic responsibility, whose decisions are accepted on places taking in account an opinion of the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. It is connected basically to construction of objects, allocation of lands and etc. The questions of the expert estimation of objects, application of the penalty sanctions, probably, stop of industrial activity are prerogative of units of the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection.
In four velayats ecological funds of natural protection are formed by payments for environmental pollution (normative and over normative standard dumps and emissions, penalty sanctions, payment of the licenses etc.). The financing of public bodies is carried out by voluntary payments and own industrial activity. There are the ecological funds in some cities of Turkmenistan, in particular, in Ashgabat and Buzmeyn.
According to the rule "About Formation and Use of Funds" the means are used to finance:
Construction, technical reequipment, reconstruction and repair of natural-security objects;
Research and project research works to create new engineering and technologies for environmental protection, development of monitoring, development of EIA;
Measures, warning and compensating negative social-economic consequences of violation of the legislation for environmental protection etc.
Non-governmental Ecological Organizations
The basic public ecological bodies of Turkmenistan are:
"Society of Natural Protection of Turkmenistan"
"Katena" Ecological Club in Ashgabat
Ecological Club in Dashkhovuz
The following organizations collect and distribute the ecological information in Turkmenistan:
The Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan.
The Research and Production Center of Ecological Monitoring of the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan .
The National Committee on Hydrometeorology at Council of Ministers of Turkmenistan.
The National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of the Ministry of the Use of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan .
The Research Center of Commission on Steady Development of the Aral Sea.
The Ministry of Human Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Water Economy.
The Main State Inspection on Standartization, Metrology, Protection of Entrails and Safe Running of Works in National Economy of Turkmenistan .
The State Corporation "Turkmengeology".
The State Committee on Fishery.
The State Committee on Geodesy, Cartography and Inventory at Council of Ministers of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan has joined the following international conventions in the field of natural use and environmental protection:
The Convention on the World Meteorological Organization (1993);
The Viennese Convention and Montreal Protocol on the Protection of Ozone Layer (1993);
The UN Framework Convention on the Climate Change (1995);
The UN Convention on the Desertification (1995);
The UN Convention on Preservation of the Biological Diversity (1996);
The Basel Convention on Control for Transboundary Transportation of Dangerous Wastes and their Removal (1996).
The Kuyto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1998).
Programs and Strategies
Also on the basis of the bilateral contracts and agreements Turkmenistan participates in regional information interchange on environment, hydrometeorology, hygiene of an environment with the countries of CIS, Turkey, Iran, India. The National Plan of Actions on Environmental Protection (NEAP) was prepared, the National Plan of Actions on Hygiene of Environment (NEGAP) is developed. The National Report was made within the framework of realization of the project of Global Ecological Fund (GEF) under the Caspian Ecological Program (KSEP).
National Environment program of Turkmenistan
The National Environment Program of Turkmenistan is the joint project of the UNDP and the Government of Turkmenistan. The following sub-components are included:
1. Creating Effective Environmental Legislation and Standards
Discussion Paper on the environmental legislation situation
Development of Environmental Quality Standards
Report to Government with recommendations
2. Capacity Building in the Ministry of the Environment
Review and report on the strong and weak points of the Ministry
Enhancements in staff and other resources
Strategy for Public Information and Environmental Awareness
Public education material through mass media
Environmental Studies curriculum development
Feasibility Study for a Center of Excellence at the State University of Turkmenistan
3. Strengthening the EIA Process
Report to Government on an improved EIA Process
Handbook for the EIA Process in Turkmenistan
National and other EIA Workshops
4. Land Use Planning and Management Process
Report on Land Use Planning and Management
Pilot Coastal Zone Management Plan for the Turkmen Caspian Coast
Publication of research results, advice and guidance on combating desertification
5. Management of Protected Areas
Rapid survey of ecological, geological and cultural resources in Turkmenistan
Advice to Government on Protected Areas Management Planning Procedures
Pilot management plan for Kopet-Dag Protected Area
Visitor Centre and equipment for Kopet-Dag Protected Area
Communication equipment for selected field stations
6. Framework for tile Management of Species that Require Protection
Discussion paper on a protected species management framework
Updating of the Red Data Book ofTurkmenistan
Pilot Recovery Plan for selected endangered plant species
Pilot Recovery Plan for selected endangered animal species
7. Environmental Information Management
Creating a relational database in CIS format
Publishing the Environmental Atlas of Turkmenistan
8. Control and Management of Industrial and Agricultural Impacts -Formulating a document on control and management of industrial and agricultural impacts in Turkmenistan
Sources of Information:
Data of the Ministry of the Use of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan.
Data of the Research and Production Center of Ecological Monitoring of the Ministry of the Use of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Turkmenistan.