In 1998, there were 10,189 recreation establishments in Ukraine. They included 729 sanatoria, 164 rest homes, 2,585 rest centres, 246 boarding houses, 33 camping sites, 114 tourist centres and 6,318 camps. Of the total number of health-restoring establishments 26.6% have beaches, including 17.7% sea beaches. There are 66% health-restoring establishments with beaches and 100% with sea beaches in the southern region of Ukraine: the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea and Donetsk, Zaporizhzhia, Odesa, Kherson and Mykolaiv regions. The recreation establishments with sea beaches are mainly concentrated in the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea (31%) and in Mykolaiv (19%), Odesa and Donetsk (15% in each) regions.
The total number of urban beaches in the recreation-resort zones of Ukraine was 723 in 1998, including 126 sea beaches. The largest number of urban river beaches is concentrated in the territory of Kharkiv (34%) and Donetsk (11%) regions, and urban sea beaches in the territory of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea (64%) and in Odesa Region (16%).
The sanitary and epidemic safety of those resting and receiving treatment in the recreation-resort establishments depends on their being provided with fresh water meeting hygienic requirements in terms of chemical and microbiological indicators.
Laboratory analyses of drinking water used in health-restoring establishments were carried out by the sanitary-epidemiological service of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine. The analyses showed essential deviations from the standards (by chemical indices in 11.2% of samples, by sanitary-microbiological indices in 6.9% of samples on average).
No essential improvement in drinking water quality at health-restoring establishments was observed in 1998 against 1997 when the average share of deviations by chemical indices was observed in 10.6% of samples and by microbiological indices in 7.6% of samples.
The most considerable deviations of drinking water quality from the standards by chemical indices were observed at rest centres (15.5%), in camps (11.2%), in sanatoria for adults and children (8.4 and 8.3%), in camping sites and tourist centres (within 7.8-7.9%); the least deviations were found in rest homes for adults with children (5.4%) and in boarding houses 5.8%. By microbiological indices the highest indicators of deviations from the standards were registered in tourist centres (8.9-12.7%) and rest centres, rest homes for adults (8.8-9.8%), and the lowest in camping sites (0.8%) and rest houses for adults (1.6%).
The most considerable shares of drinking water samples with deviations from standards by chemical indices were found in 1998 in Dniepropetrovsk (27.6%), Zaporizhzhia (27.1%), Zhitomyr (24.6%), Volyn (24.5%) regions and in the city of Sevastopol (19.1%). Drinking water quality in terms of corresponding deviations of sanitary-microbiological indices from standards was most unfavourable in Zakarpattia (15.4%), Zaporizhzhia (15.1), Odesa (13.7), Rivne (13.6) and Chernigiv (13.1) regions.
The situation when it comes to ensuring the standard quality of drinking water in health-restoring establishments remained unfavourable in 1998 in Dniepropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhia, Zakarpattia, Odesa regions.
The state of open reservoirs used for cultural-recreational purposes is an important characteristic of the degree of epidemic safety of the health-restoring establishments and recreation-resort zones.
According to data of sanitary-microbiological research of the sanitary-epidemic service, the percentage of water samples from open reservoirs in the beach zones of health-restoring establishments with deviations from the standards in force varied in 1998 within 4.3%-50.6% and was 14.4% on average.
Water in the zone of beaches in Donetsk and Odesa regions with 25.4% of all health-restoring establishments with beaches of Ukraine and 29.7% of establishments with sea beaches, is characterized by high pollution indices. The share of samples with deviations from standards by sanitary-microbiological indices was 29.9% on average in Odesa Region and 21.3% in Donetsk Region in 1998. Maximum values of these indices were observed in water of the beaches in tourist centres for adults (75.9%), camping sites (69.2%), sanatoria for children (30.8%) of Odesa Region and in sanatoria for adults (48.2%), camps (23.4%) of Donetsk Region.
The state of water bodies in the recreation-resort zones of the Zaporizhzhia, Kherson and Mykolaiv regions, where 19.8% of all health-restoring establishments with beaches are located, is characterized by a more favourable situation than in Ukraine as a whole, and by a tendency towards a decrease of the share of the samples exceeding standards as compared to 1997. Exceeding of standards by microbiological indices was observed in 12.7% of the water in the beach zones of Zaporizhzhia Region and in 8.1% of samples in Mykolaiv Region.
In the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea, where 30.6% of all resorts and health-restoring establishments of Ukraine with sea beaches are located, the state of water of the beach water area does not meet the standard requirements by microbiological indices (11.9% of samples), which are lower than in Ukraine as a whole, but higher than in 1998 (8.4% of samples).
A very high level of bacterial pollution of reservoirs in the recreation zones (as in 1997) is observed in a number of western regions (Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Rivne), where only 0.4% of health-restoring establishments with beaches are located. The average percentage of samples exceeding standards by sanitary-microbiological indices was 50.6%, 44.3% and 32.7%, respectively.
Indices of bacterial pollution of water in reservoirs in the beach zones of the health-restoring establishments of Lugansk (36.5% of samples) and Kirovograd (25.30% of samples) regions also approach this level.
In most other regions these indices are close to the average in Ukraine and even exceed it (Chernigiv Region, Kyiv) or they are lower than the standard (Kyiv, Dniepropetrovsk, Poltava, Zhitomyr, Sumy, Kharkiv, Khmelnitskyi, Cherkasy regions). The indices are especially low in Volyn and Mykolaiv regions and in Sevastopol.
The average percentage of out of standards (by sanitary microbiological indices) water samples from open reservoirs in the zones with recreation establishments in Ukraine has not essentially changed as compared to 1997 (14.4% in 1998 against 14.1% in 1997). A decrease of the level of bacterial pollution was observed in Donetsk, Vinnytsia, Dniepropetrovsk, Lviv, Zaporizhzhia, Mykolaiv, Rivne, Khmelnytskyi, Cherkasy and Chernivtsi regions and in Sevastopol and Kyiv; an increase was observed in Ivano-Frankivsk, Odesa, Chernigiv, Kyiv, Lugansk, Poltava, Sumy and Kharkiv regions and in the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea.
Laboratory control was performed by the sanitary-epidemiological services of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine during the whole summer period in seven sea regions (Autonomous Republic of the Crimea, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhia, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Kherson regions and in Sevastopol).
The control results show that the quality of the sea and river water in recreation zones did not correspond to hygienic standards by sanitary-microbiological indices in 18.7% of the samples, including 16.3% of water samples from sea beaches and 18.7% samples from river beaches. The most unfavourable situation as to quality of sea water was registered in Odesa and Donetsk regions (32.9% and 32.1% out of standard samples, respectively). Special anxiety was caused by waters near the Azov Sea coast of Donetsk Region, which are severely affected by the disposal of domestic and production sewage of the highly urbanized industrial regions, and where cholera agents have been found. The quality of waters near the Black Sea beach in the vicinities of Odesa, Kylia and Feodocia also cause concern.
Slightly lower levels of microbial pollution of sea water were observed in the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea (12.3% of samples) and considerably less pollution in Mykolaiv (6.1%), Zaporizhzhia (2.3%) and Kherson (0.9%) regions and in Sevastopol (3.8% of samples). Microbial pollution of sea water on the beaches of all regions, except for Kherson, is rather high and it essentially surpasses the corresponding indices of sea beaches. The percentage of samples with deviations in microbiological indices was 69.6 in Odesa, 43.2 in Mykolaiv, 37.4 in Donetsk, 31.9 in Zaporizhzhia and 9.8 in Kherson regions.
High anthropogenic pressure (especially in the zones of sea beaches), the poor sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-technical state of beaches, the discharge of domestic and industrial sewage into the reservoirs in violation of hygienic requirements, and a deterioration of water quality due to unfavourable weather conditions (showers, storms) are among the most significant reasons of the unsatisfactory state of the water near the sea and river coasts in the recreation zones.
Organizational and sanitary measures have been taken to prevent the harmful effect of pollutants in resort reservations on the health of the population.
About 85.1% of the beaches were in use during the summer (July – August) in the sea regions. Every week 20 to 70 beaches were closed. During the entire summer period all Odesa beaches (“Arkadia”, “Delfin”, “Vidrada”, ”Lanzheron”, “Luzanivka”, “Chernomorka”, and stations Nos. 10, 13 and 16 at Velykyi Fontan) and river beaches of Donetsk, Mariupol, Zaporizhzhia and Mykolaiv were closed.
Beaches were closed in the summer of 1998, as in 1997, because of their sanitary-hygienic and sanitary-technical state, accidental discharges of sewage into the sea and because water quality did not correspond to sanitary-hygienic standards and became much worse under unfavourable weather conditions. About 15% of the beaches in Zaporizhzhia and Kherson regions were not opened as a result of the economic crisis.
The above-mentioned problems clearly show the necessity of developing a national complex programme of measurements for protection and efficient utilization of the recreation-resort resources on the sea and river coasts, and to define the zones where measures must be carried out first.
The Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute of Rehabilitation and Balneology has studied mineral water deposits in the industrially developed regions of Ukraine (Dniepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhia, Lugansk and Kharkiv regions), which allowed their present quality to be assessed, and prospective recreation-resort districts to be found. The present state of deposits of mineral waters produced for industrial bottling and balneological treatment is such that their quality characteristics would be estimated as satisfactory, which corresponds to standards in force. Some changes in chemical composition of subterranean waters as a result of non-rational utilization have been established.
Regions that look promising for development of a recreation-resort network have been identified in the territory of each region based on a complex evaluation of mineral water deposits.
These are as follows: the Novomoskovsk recreation-resort zone, occupying Novomoskovsk and a part of Pavlograd District in Dniepropetrovsk Region; Slaviansk-Slavianogorsk and Velyko-Anodolsk and Azov districts in Donetsk Region; Azov resort district in a 50 km wide area near the Azov Sea coast in Zaporizhzhia; Aidar District along the Aidar River valley and Stanychno-Luchansk District within the right-bank area of the Siversky Donets River in Lugansk Region; Siverskyi-Donetsk District within the forest massifs of the Siverskyi Donets and Krasna rivers (from the town of Krasnorechenske to the village of Smolyanynove); and Kharkiv and Zmiiv districts in Kharkiv Region.
A new approach to the evaluation of the resort resources allowed new types of unknown mineral waters to be found within the limits of well-known resorts and recreation-resort areas.
Mineral waters with a high content of organic substances helpful for treatment of gastroenterological and hepatobiliary diseases were detected at “Khmilnyk” resort. Similar waters were found in the Mountain Crimea (Autonomous Republic of the Crimea) – the mineral water “Savlukh-Soo”. Use of these waters for medicinal purposes expand the range of medical indications of the well-known resorts.
The Law of Ukraine “On the Special Economic Basis of Tourist-Recreational Type ‘Resort-polis Truskavets’ ”, No. 514-XIV of 18 March 1999 has been adopted.
A special resort economic zone, “Resort-polis Truskavets”, has been created to stimulate the innovation and investment activities aimed at performing economic experiments in a compact socio-economic territory-branch system. The intention is to promote innovation activities in the sphere of treatment and recreation, and investment activities in a manner which provides for development of the sanatorium-resort complex, public services and service infrastructure (trade, public catering, tourism, organization of rest, communications, transport and hotel services) of the resort, and to raise it to the level of international standards.